United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 1946

  • It is a UN agency to provide humanitarian and developmental aid to children worldwide.
  • UNICEF is the successor of the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), created by U.N. Relief Rehabilitation Administration to provide immediate relief to children and mothers affected by World War II.
  • It became a part of UN System in 1953.
  • Member: 192
  • Headquarter: New York.
  • Regional Offices: Americas and Caribbean: Panama City, Panama
    • Europe and Central Asia: Geneva, Switzerland
    • East Asia and the Pacific: Bangkok, Thailand
    • Eastern and Southern Africa: Nairobi, Kenya
    • Middle East and North Africa: Amman, Jordan
      • South Asia: Kathmandu, Nepal
  • West and Central Africa: Senegal
  • Parent organization: UN General Assembly and UN Economic and Social Council.
  • Functions and Objectives:
    • To provide immunizations and disease prevention.
    • To administer treatment for children and mothers with HIV.
    • To enhance childhood and maternal nutrition.
    • To improve sanitation, promote education, provide emergency relief in disasters.
    • To address the long-term needs of children and women, particularly in developing countries.

Governance:

  • Executive Board: It makes and approves policies, programs, administration, financial plans.
    • It has 36 members (3 years term), including government representatives.
    • They are elected by the UN Economic and Social Council.
  • UNICEF national committees
    • There are national committees in 36 developed countries.
    • Each is established as independent local NGOs.
    • It raises funds from the private sector, as UNICEF is entirely dependent on voluntary contributions.