- A country manages to secure vaccine doses for its own citizens or residents before they would be available for other countries.
- Pre-purchase agreements between a government and a vaccine manufacturer.
- 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic: the USA alone obtained the right to buy 600,000 doses.
- To procure at least two billion doses of Covid-19 vaccines by the end of 2021.
- For distribution mainly in low and middle-income countries.
- Launched by WHO, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, and Gavi.
- Collection and testing of serum specimens (or proxy such as an oral fluid).
- From a sample of the population over a specified time period.
- To estimate the prevalence of antibodies against a given specific infectious pathogen as an indicator of immunity.
African Swine Fever (ASF)
- ASF is a highly contagious and fatal animal disease.
- It infects domestic and wild pigs.
- First detected in Africa in 1920s.
- The mortality is almost 100%. It has no cure, the only way to stop it is culling of animals.
- Does not transmit to human beings
- It has extremely high potential for transboundary spread. – FAO
- Since February, more than 15,000 pigs died due to this highly contagious disease in North East.
- Transmitted from China.
- Concern: Piggery is a major source livelihood in northeast.
- Also known as human African Trypanosomiasis
- Transmitted through tsetse flies.
- Togo become the first country in Africa to eliminate it.
- It is an infectious disease, caused by the bacterium Burkholderia mallei.
- It primarily affects horses.
- It also affects other animals.
- Transmitted to humans through contact with tissues or body fluids of infected animals.
- Anew virus, rapidly spreading in China.
- SFTS disease: Severe Fever with Thrombo-cytopenia Syndrome.
- Human to human transmission is possible.
- SFTS is listed among the top 10 priority diseases blueprint of WHO. [Fatality rate: 15 to 30%]
- Recent cases: a re-emergence of the disease.
Africa declared wild polio free
- Now only the vaccine-derived poliovirus exists in Africa.
- A region is certified as wild polio-free after three years of no virus detection.
- Nigeria is the last African country.
- Wild polio is still present in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
- A disease resulting from fluoride deposition in the hard and soft tissues of body.
- Due to excess intake of fluoride through drinking water or food products.
International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005)
- An agreement between 196 countries
- All the WHO Member States
- To work together for global health security.
Global Health Security (GHS) Index
- Launched by
- Nuclear Threat Initiative
- Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security
- Economist Intelligence Unit.
- It is the first comprehensive assessment of health security across 195States Parties to the International Health Regulations, 2005.
Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANM)
- ANM is a village-level female health worker.
- First contact between community and health services.
- She works at health sub-centers.
- These are a small village-level institution that provides primary health care to the community.
- She holds regular meetings with ASHA.
Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs)
- ASHAs are a community-based functionary under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM).
- known as Sahiyas in Jharkhand.
National Digital Health Mission
- A national health ID for every Indian.
- Digitized health records with identifiers for doctors and health facilities.
- Launched under the Ayushman Bharat, PMJAY.
- One-time access to data during visits to hospitals.
- Background: 2018 Niti Aayog proposal to create a centralized mechanism to uniquely identify users in the National Health Stack.
National Health Authority (NHA)
- Apex body to implement Ayushman Bharat.
- It is the successor of the National Health Agency.
- Governing Board chaired by the Union Health Minister.