Vaccine Nationalism

  • A country manages to secure vaccine doses for its own citizens or residents before they would be available for other countries.
  • Pre-purchase agreements between a government and a vaccine manufacturer.
  • 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic: the USA alone obtained the right to buy 600,000 doses.


Covax Facility

  • To procure at least two billion doses of Covid-19 vaccines by the end of 2021.
  • For distribution mainly in low and middle-income countries.
  • Launched by WHO, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, and Gavi.



Sero survey

  • Collection and testing of serum specimens (or proxy such as an oral fluid).
  • From a sample of the population over a specified time period.
  • To estimate the prevalence of antibodies against a given specific infectious pathogen as an indicator of immunity.



African Swine Fever (ASF)

  • ASF is a highly contagious and fatal animal disease.
  • It infects domestic and wild pigs.
  • First detected in Africa in 1920s.
  • The mortality is almost 100%. It has no cure, the only way to stop it is culling of animals.
  • Does not transmit to human beings
  • It has extremely high potential for transboundary spread. – FAO


  • Since February, more than 15,000 pigs died due to this highly contagious disease in North East.
  • Transmitted from China.
  • Concern: Piggery is a major source livelihood in northeast.


Sleeping sickness

  • Also known as human African Trypanosomiasis
  • Transmitted through tsetse flies.
  • Togo become the first country in Africa to eliminate it.



  • It is an infectious disease, caused by the bacterium Burkholderia mallei.
  • It primarily affects horses.
  • It also affects other animals.
  • Transmitted to humans through contact with tissues or body fluids of infected animals.


Tick-borne virus

  • Anew virus, rapidly spreading in China.
  • SFTS disease: Severe Fever with Thrombo-cytopenia Syndrome.
  • Human to human transmission is possible.
  • SFTS is listed among the top 10 priority diseases blueprint of WHO. [Fatality rate: 15 to 30%]
  • Recent cases: a re-emergence of the disease.



Africa declared wild polio free

  • Now only the vaccine-derived poliovirus exists in Africa.
  • A region is certified as wild polio-free after three years of no virus detection.
  • Nigeria is the last African country.
  • Wild polio is still present in Pakistan and Afghanistan.



  • A disease resulting from fluoride deposition in the hard and soft tissues of body.
  • Due to excess intake of fluoride through drinking water or food products.


International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005)

  • An agreement between 196 countries
  • All the WHO Member States
  • To work together for global health security.


Global Health Security (GHS) Index

  • Launched by
    • Nuclear Threat Initiative
    • Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security
    • Economist Intelligence Unit.
  • It is the first comprehensive assessment of health security across 195States Parties to the International Health Regulations, 2005.


Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANM)

  • ANM is a village-level female health worker.
  • First contact between community and health services.
  • She works at health sub-centers.
    • These are a small village-level institution that provides primary health care to the community.
  • She holds regular meetings with ASHA.




Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs)

  • ASHAs are a community-based functionary under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM).
  • known as Sahiyas in Jharkhand.



National Digital Health Mission

  • A national health ID for every Indian.
  • Digitized health records with identifiers for doctors and health facilities.
  • Launched under the Ayushman Bharat, PMJAY.
  • One-time access to data during visits to hospitals.
  • Background: 2018 Niti Aayog proposal to create a centralized mechanism to uniquely identify users in the National Health Stack.


National Health Authority (NHA)

  • Apex body to implement Ayushman Bharat.
  • It is the successor of the National Health Agency.
  • Governing Board chaired by the Union Health Minister.