Genome Sequencing

  • A genome is an organism’s complete set of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
  • Genome Sequencing means deciphering the order of base pairs in an organism.
  • Information about health or ill health, inherited or acquired: by the arrangement of base pairs, variations or mutations.


Eukaryotic cells: whose cells contain a nucleus and organelles, and are enclosed by a plasma membrane. Eg. protozoa, fungi, plants and animals.

Prokaryotic cells: do not have a true nucleus or membrane-bound organelles. E.g. Bacteria.

Indian Initiative on Earth Bio Genome Sequencing (IIEBS)

  • To decode genetic information of all known species of plants and animals in India.
  • A part of Earth Bio Genome Project.
  • The genome sequencing of 1,000 species to be taken up in the initial phase of five years.
  • Coordinating centre: National Institute of Plant Genome Research, New Delhi
  • It will help in prevention of biopiracy.
  • News: Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute (JNTBGRI)
  • to take part in


  • An autonomous R&D organisation in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.
  • National Centre of Excellence in ex situ conservation and sustainable utilisation of tropical plants diversity.

Earth Bio Genome project, 2018

To sequence, catalogue and characterise genomes of Earth’s all eukaryotic biodiversity.

Time period: ten years.

Scientific partners and funders from around the globe.

Methanotrophs: Methane Oxidizing Bacteria

  • These grow on methane as their sole source of carbon and energy.
  • Can reduce global warming due to GHG emission.
    • They can use bio-methane generated from waste to convert into value added products. Eg. single cell proteins, carotenoids, biodiesel etc.
  • They can reduce methane emissions from rice plants.
  • Have positive or neutral effect on rice crop.
  • Rice fields: Anaerobic degradation of organic matter generates methane.
    • These are
    • These contribute to nearly 10% of global methane emissions.

In rice fields, methanotrophs live near roots or soil-water interfaces.