Consumer Protection Act, 2019
The Consumer Protection Act, 2019 replaced the 1986 Act.
Six “consumer rights” in the new Act:
- The right to be protected against the marketing.
- The right to be informed about goods to protect the consumer against unfair trade practices.
- The right to assured access to a variety of goods or products at competitive prices.
- The right to be heard.
- The right to seek redressal against unfair trade practice.
- The right to consumer awareness.
- Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA): It will be assisted by a Director-General of Investigation.
- Simplification of consumer dispute adjudication process
- State and District Commissions are empowered to review their own orders
- Alternate Dispute Resolution mechanism: No appeal against settlement through mediation.
- Concept of product liability Introduced: A manufacturer or seller to be responsible to compensate for injury or damage to the product.
- Punishment for adulterant or spurious goods, and even cancel the license.
- The amount due to unidentifiable consumers to be credited to the Consumer Welfare Fund (CWF).
- A Central Consumer Protection Council as an advisory body headed by the Union Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution.
- Regarding E-commerce entities:
- These are required to provide information on the return, refund, exchange, warranty, etc. including country of origin.
- They have to acknowledge any complaint within 48 hours.
- They need to redress the complaint within one month.
- They need to appoint a grievance redressal officer.
- Sellers cannot refuse to take back goods or withdraw services if such goods or services are defective, deficient, etc.
- E-commerce companies are prohibited from manipulating the price to gain unreasonable profit.
National Programme for Civil Services Capacity Building (NPCSCB)
- To make Indian Civil Servant more creative, constructive, professional, progressive, technology-enabled, etc.
- It will cover around 50 lakh, Central employees.
- The transition from Rules-based to Roles based on Human Resource management.
- Emphasize on ‘on-site learning’: to complement the ‘off-site’ learning.
- Calibrate all Civil Service positions to a Framework of Roles, Activities, and Competencies approach.
- Partner with the best-in-class content creators, like public training institutions, universities, etc.
- Civil servants to continuously strengthen their Behavioral, Functional, and Domain Competencies.
- iGOT Platform: Integrated Government Online Training.
Ranbir Singh committee on Criminal Law Reform
- Constituted by Ministry of Home Affairs is looking at a sweeping overhaul of criminal laws.
Objectives: to revise
- Indian penal code (IPC), 1860: It defines offenses and specifies their respective punishments.
- Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC), 1973: establishes the machinery for implementation of the IPC and lays down the procedures.
- Indian Evidence Act, 1872: elaborates on the rules of taking evidence in order to prove the guilt or innocence of an alleged offender.
Expert Bodies on Police and Criminal Law Reform
- National Police Commission 1977-81
- Ribeiro Committee 1988
- Padmanabhaiah Committee 2000
- Malimath Committee 2002-03
- Prakash Singh vs Union of India case, 2006
- II ARC, 2007
- Police Act Drafting Committee II 2015
Epidemic Diseases (Amendment) Ordinance, 2020
- It amends the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897
- Objective: to protect healthcare personnel and property, including their living or working premises against violence during epidemics.
- The burden of proof for the offense falls on the guilty.
- These offenses are cognizable and non-bailable.
- The trial should be concluded within one year.
Aadhaar Authentication Rules, 2020
Till now, the government allowed Aadhaar for social welfare benefits under some programmes. Eg. For PDS System.
- New rules to expand the scope of Aadhar for agriculture, education and health schemes, etc.
- The central government may allow Aadhaar authentication for:
- Use of digital platforms to ensure good governance.
- Prevention of dissipation of social welfare benefits.
- Enablement of innovation and spread of knowledge.
- For authentication services, government departments will have to seek approval of UIDAI.
- UIDAI is a statutory body to manage Aadhaar and runs Aadhaar-based services.
- Only the government agencies would be allowed to use Aadhaar authentication services, not any private entity.
- This is in line with the 2016 Supreme Court judgment.
- Aadhaar (Amendment) Act, 2019 seeks to effectively allow private entities access to Aadhaar-based authentication. That was challenged in the Supreme Court.
Lokpal (Complaint) Rules, 2020
Notified by Department of Personnel and Training under Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013.
- Complaint against a sitting or former PM: shall be decided at the admission stage, by a full bench.
- Approved by two-third the inquiry.
- If the bench dismisses complaints at the admission state, its records will not be made public.
- No complaints can be filed against a public servant under the Army Act, the Air Force Act, Navy Act, & Coast Guard Act.
- The complaint must provide identity proof.
- Foreign nationals can also lodge complaints.
- Identity of the complainant or accused official to be protected.
- Punishment for false and frivolous complaints.
- Complaint language: any language of the Eighth Schedule, apart from English.
- Complain filing mode: electronically, by post, or in person.