Galwan Valley

  • The land between steep mountains that buffet Galwan River.
  • Galwan river: source in Aksai Chin, on China’s side of the Line of Actual Control (LAC), and it flows east to Ladakh, where it meets the Shyok river on India’s side of LAC.
  • Location: strategic between Ladakh in the west and Aksai Chin in the east.
  • Western end: Shyok river and Darbuk-Shyok-Daulet Beg Oldie (DSDBO) road.
  • Galwan Valley: part of the winter trade route that linked Leh with Yarkand and Kashgar across the Karakoram Pass.



Nagorno- Karabakh region

  • The disputed region between Armenia and Azerbaijan.
  • Location: South Caucasus region, in the area between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.



  • Landlocked country in Eastern Europe
  • Location:
  • Russia to the east,
  • Ukraine to the south
  • to the north and west lie EU and NATO members Latvia, Lithuania and Poland.




  • Beirut is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
  • Location: Mediterranean coast at the foot of the Lebanon Mountains.


  • Landlocked country of western Africa, mostly in the Saharan and Sahelian regions.
  • Niger River – functioning as the main trading and transport artery in the country, flows in the interior.


Wadi Rum

  • Desert in far south of Jordan.
  • It is also called the valley of Moon.
  • Set on a high plateau at the western edge of the Arabian Desert.
  • Wadi – bed or valley of a stream that is dry except during the rainy season.



Natanz, Iran

  • Natanz – where Iran’s main nuclear facility is located.


Hong Kong

  • Hong Kong National Security Law passed by China.
  • Criminalize secession, subversion, terrorism, and foreign interference in Hong Kong.
  • China could have its own law enforcement agencies in Hong Kong.
  • Concerns: it could lead to the prosecution of Hong Kongers for
  • criticizing their or the mainland’s leadership,
  • joining protests or
  • exercising their current rights under local laws.



Black Sea

  • Natural gas reserve discovered in Black Sea.
  • Black Sea (Euxine Sea) – located between Eastern Europe and Western Asia.


Bandar Abbas port, Iran

  • INS Jalashwa
  • Operation Samudra Setu – launched by Indian Navy as a part of national effort to repatriate Indian citizens from overseas.
  • Location: Strait of Hormuz (connecting Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman).



Green Zone (Iraq)

  • International Zone of Baghdad: governmental center of Coalition Provisional Authority during the occupation of Iraq after the American-led 2003 invasion and remains the center of the International presence in the city.



Natura Islands

  • Natuna Islands: 272-island archipelago of Indonesia.
  • China claims much of the South China Sea, including the waters near the Natunas.



Senkaku islands

    • Group of uninhabited islands in the East China Sea, claimed by Japan, China, and Taiwan.
    • Japan changed the name of the southern Japan area containing the Senkaku Islands from “Tonoshiro” “Tonoshiro Senkaku,” seen as an attempt to cement its claim.



Amami Islands, japan

  • This archipelago is part of Japan.


Kuril Islands

  • Kurils island chain: stretches north across Pacific Ocean from Japanese island of Hokkaido to southern tip of Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula.
  • Chain: consists of 22 main islands, volcanically active.
  • Islands form part of ‘Pacific Ring of Fire’.
  • Kuril Trench: Parallel to the chain, in Pacific floor.
  • Its four southernmost islands are disputed territories claimed by Russia and Japan.


Anak Krakatau Volcano

  • Volcanic island in Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra, Indonesia that witnessed longest eruption since its explosive collapse in 2018.
  • Emerged in early 20th century from caldera formed by Krakatau volcano.
  • Caldera: large depression formed when a volcano erupts and collapses.


Yangtze river, China

  • Yangtze is Asia’s longest river.
  • Three Gorges dam: World’s largest hydroelectric dam.



Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD)

  • Ethiopia, Egypt, and Sudan have disputes over GERD.
  • GERD: 6,450 MW hydropower project on the Blue Nile River in Ethiopia.
  • Two major tributaries of the Nile: White Nile River and Blue Nile River
  • Millennium Dam: will be the largest dam in Africa.
  • It will not only serve Ethiopia but Sudan and Egypt as well.



Danube-Oder-Elbe (DOE) Canal Project

  • European project connecting Danube, Oder, and Elbe rivers
  • Provides another navigable link from the Black Sea to the North and Baltic Seas.