• UN75 – 75th anniversary in 2020, the UN launched global conservation on the role of global cooperation in building the future we want.
    • It can be joined by anyone in all 193 UN Member States, online, and offline, or in formal and informal dialogues.
    • UN75 3 big questions:
      • What kind of future do we want to create?
      • Are we on track?
      • What action is needed to bridge the gap?
    • 3 components:
      • Connecting people
      • Amplify their voices by creating open channels for people
      • Inspire action
    • News: UN75 Initiative released Findings from the first three months of Global Dialogue titled ‘Resolved to Combine Our Efforts”.



Israel and the United Arab Emirates Diplomatic Agreement

Israel and the United Arab Emirates Diplomatic Agreement

    • The diplomatic agreement signed between Israel and the United Arab Emirates (UAE): Abraham Accord
    • Full normalization of relations in exchange for Israel’s suspension of the annexation of occupied West Bank territory.
    • UAE: 1st Gulf country to establish diplomatic and economic relations with Israel.
    • Jordan and Egypt: Arab states to have diplomatic ties with Israel.
    • Endorsed: UNGA in April 2013
      • Entered into force: December 23, 2014.



Permanent Commission for Serving Women in Navy

  • SC ruled in favor of Permanent Commission to female officers in Indian Navy
    • Government to treat men & women equally in armed forces.
  • SC has already ruled in favor of PC for women in Army.
  • PC: entitles an officer to serve in Navy till he or she retires.
  • Short Service Commission: officer serve for limited time period (14 years).


Vande Bharat Mission

  • Evacuation exercise
  • Aim: to bring home Indian nationals stranded abroad due to COVID-19 lockdown.
  • People are brought back in flights by Air India and also by the Indian Navy.



Stranded in India Portal

  • Launched by: Ministry of Tourism
  • Aim: to help foreign tourists who are stuck in various parts of the country.
    • to be a single-window solution that grants foreign tourists’ access to all the information they may need and the services that they can avail to continue to live in India, safely.


Mission Sagar

  • Aim: INS Kesari departed for Maldives, Mauritius, Seychelles, Madagascar, and Comoros for providing food items & medicines related to COVID-19.
  • PM vision of Security and Growth for All in the Region (SAGAR)
  • Strengthens India’s relationship with neighbouring countries.



Operation Samudra Setu (Sea Bridge)

  • Launched by Indian Navy
  • To repatriate Indian citizens from overseas.



Tsar Bomba nuke test

  • Bomb – officially named RDS-220 and later nick-named Tsar Bomba.
  • largest nuclear weapon ever constructed.
  • Weapon was set off over Novaya Zemlya (island in Arctic Ocean) on October 30, 1961.



75th anniversary of the world's first atomic bombing

  • World War-II – US dropped its 1st atomic bomb named “Little Boy” on Hiroshima (Japan).
  • The US dropped a second atom bomb named “Fat Man” on Nagasaki (Japan) in 1945.


Demilitarised zone (DMZ)

  • North Korea threatened to send troops to DMZ.
  • DMZ – region on the Korean peninsula demarcating North Korea from South Korea.
  • 2 km-wide buffer, stretching coast to coast across the peninsula.
  • Latitude 38° N (the 38th parallel) is followed
  • Original demarcation line between North Korea and South Korea at the end of World War II.
  • Established: part of ceasefire negotiated between UN and communist forces.



Universal Periodic Review (UPR) process

  • 3rd round of UPR process: recommendations related to universal basic income, child rights etc. given by NHRC.
  • UPR involves a review of human rights records of all UN Member States.
  • UPR process is under support of Human Rights Council (HRC).
  • HRC – inter-governmental body within UN system responsible for promotion and protection of all human rights.
  • Aim: to improve human rights situation in all countries and address human rights violations.



Cairns Group

  • A coalition of 19 agricultural exporting nations lobbying for agricultural trade liberalization.
  • Accounts for more than 25% of the world’s agricultural exports.
  • Formation: 1986 in Cairns, Australia.
  • India is not a member.
  • The initiative launched to support the global agricultural and food system during the COVID-19 pandemic, limiting the impact of emergency measures on global food security and fair trade.




  • Iran’s monetary unit changed from ‘Rial’ to the popularly used ‘Toman’.
  • Each ‘Toman’ = 10,000 Rials.

Significance: Iran has reportedly decided to change its currency to offset the fallout from inflation triggered by US sanctions.


Three Seas Initiative

  • Launched: 2015.
  • Members: 12 EU Member States located between Adriatic, Baltic, and Black Seas.
  • Known as: Baltic, Adriatic, Black Sea (BABS) Initiative.
  • Aim: to accelerate development of energy, transport, and digital infrastructure.



Trinity Test

  • July 16, 1945 – scientists tested Gadget-world’s first atomic bomb.
  • It was known as the Trinity Test.
  • Developed: US-led Manhattan Project.
  • An atomic bomb uses either uranium or plutonium and relies on fission.
    • Fission: a nuclear reaction in which a nucleus of an atom breaks apart into two pieces.




  • Uyghur Human Rights Policy Act of 2020: sanctions on Chinese officials deemed responsible for oppression of Uighur Muslims.
  • Uighurs: Muslim, Turkic ethnicity who live in China’s Xinjiang Province.
  • Culturally and ethnically close to Central Asian nations.


Global Vaccine Summit 2020, UK

  • Aim: to raise funds for Gavi, a global Vaccine Alliance.
  • Gavi: international organisation, brings together public and private sectors with shared goal of creating equal access to new and underused vaccines for children living in world’s poorest countries.
  • India’s commitment: $15 million to Gavi over next five years.



Global Soft Power Index

  • Released by: UK based Brand Finance.
  • Three parameters: familiarity, reputation, and influence.
  • Top four nations: US, Germany, the UK, and Japan.
  • India ranked 27th – below China, the UAE, and even Saudi Arabia.



NAFTA is now the USMCA

  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): renegotiated by United States, Mexico, and Canada in 2018.
  • New deal: United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA).
    • Aim: created in 1994, to generate economic growth and helping to raise the standard of living for the people of all three member countries.
  • Enters into force: 1 July 2020.



Southern African Customs Union (SACU)

  • Preferential Trade Agreement: discussion revived between India and SACU.
  • SACU: customs union comprising Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa & Eswatini (Swaziland).
    • Customs union: the agreement between two or more neighboring countries to remove trade barriers, reduce or abolish customs duty.
  • World`s oldest customs union, formed in 1910