Decarbonizing Transport

  • Decarbonizing Transport in India project: by NITI Aayog and International Transport Forum (ITF).
  • Decarbonization transport means reducing GHG emissions due to transport.

Decarbonizing Transport initiative (DTI), 2016

  • By International Transport Forums
  • Other funding partners: World Bank, European Commission etc.
  • To promote carbon-neutral mobility
  • To help stop climate change.

Decarbonizing Transport in Emerging Economies (DTEE)

  • A project under Decarbonizing Transport initiative
  • It is a collaboration between ITF and Wuppertal Institute
  • Supported by International Climate Initiative (IKI) of German Environment Ministry.
  • Participants: India, Argentina, Azerbaijan, and Morocco.
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International Transport Forum (ITF)

    • An inter-governmental organization within OECD.
    • Only global body with a mandate for all modes of
    • A think tank for transport policy issues
    • India is a member.

     

Nationally Determined Contributions- Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC- TIA)

    • Promoting a coherent strategy for decarbonising transport.
    • In India, China, and Vietnam; 2020-24.
    • Joint project of 7 organisations including International Transport Forum, World Resources Institute, etc.
    • Implementing agency in India is NITI
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Marine Plastic Pollution

    • Report titled “Breaking the Plastic Wave”- A Comprehensive Assessment of Pathways Towards Stopping Ocean Plastic Pollution was released.

Plastic in oceans

    • Waste plastic makes up 80% of all marine debris.
    • Microplastics (particles smaller than 5 mm) or nanoplastics (particles smaller than 100 nm) disperse even farther and deeper into the ocean.

     

London Convention, 1972

  • Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other Matter
  • London Protocol, 1996: Protocol to the London Convention
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MARPOL convention, 1973

  • Also known as International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships.

    • Main international convention for prevention of pollution of marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes.
    • Adopted in 1973 at IMO.
    • The 1973 MARPOL Convention had not yet entered into force.
    • The 1978 MARPOL Protocol absorbed the parent Convention.
    • The 1978 Protocol was adopted in response to a tanker accidents in 1976.
    • India is a signatory to MARPOL.

The UN Regional Seas Programme, 1974

  • It is the key regional framework for protecting the
  • Under UN Environment Programme (UNEP).
  • Action plans specifically addressing marine litter/plastics debris and
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Global Programme of Action, 1995 (GPA)

  • For Protection of Marine Environment from Land-based Activities.
  • Currently the only global intergovernmental mechanism entirely dedicated to addressing this
  • To prevent marine pollution from land-based sources.
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Global Partnership on Marine Litter (GPML), 2012

  • Launched at UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20).
  • Launched in response to Manila Declaration on Furthering the Implementation of the GPA 1995.
  • UNEP provides secretariat services.
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The Honolulu Strategy

    • To connect marine litter programs
    • To foster
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Global Plastic Action Partnership (GPAP)

    • Co-founded by public and private sectors
    • To harness the convening power of the World Economic Forum to bring together governments, businesses and civil society to translate commitments into meaningful actions.
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Closing the Loop project

  • Launched by UN ESCAP and Japan.
  • To reduce the environmental impact of cities in South East Asia.
  • By addressing plastic waste pollution in rivers and
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IUCN "Close the Plastic Tap" Programme

    • To generate regional and local solutions that are tailored to the different sources.
    • To better understand the extent of plastic pollution.

Global Tourism Plastics Initiative

  • By One Planet Network
  • To stop plastic ending up as pollution.
  • reducing the amount of new
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Indian efforts

  • Government announced several steps to phase out single-use plastics.
  • Stopping all usage to reduce the country’s plastic footprint under the Plastic Waste Management (Amendment) Rules 2018.
  • Indian standard by BIS: insoluble plastic microbeads of diameter 5 mm or less are banned.
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BS VI Norms

  • News: Supreme Court has completely barred any sale or registration of BS IV vehicles.

Evolution of emission norms

  • Mass emission norms were introduced for petrol vehicles in 1991 and in 1992 for diesel vehicles.
  • 2000: Euro I equivalent India 2000 norms (Bharat Stage – BS) for passenger cars and commercial vehicles.
  • Bharat Stage Norms: CPCB standards to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal combustion engines and spark-ignition engine equipment, including motor vehicles.
  • The exhaust gases now covered: CO, HCs, NOx and PM.
  • In 2016, India decided to skip BS-V norms and to adopt BS-VI norms by 2020.
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Major standards under BS VI

  • BS VI requires both automobile manufacturers and oil marketing companies (OMCs) to tweak the products.
  • A BS-VI compliant vehicle engine will require BS-VI fuel.
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How is BS-VI better than BS- IV?

  • Nitrogen oxide level reduced: for diesel engines (70%) and petrol engines (25%)
  • Particulate Matter (PM): Reduces by 80% for diesel vehicles and introduces PM limit for petrol
  • Regulations provide specifications for reference and commercial fuels.
  • Sulphur traces is five times lower (10 ppm).
  • Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are introduced with BS VI norms.
  • SCR converts harmful NOx to molecular nitrogen and oxygen, by reacting it with ammonia in presence of a catalyst.
  • Real Driving Emission (RDE) will be introduced in India for the first time. (It measures emission in real time conditions, and not in laboratory conditions).
  • Mandatory Onboard Diagnostics (OD): It will give the owner or repair technician access to the status of the various vehicle subsystems.
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Black Carbon

    • It is a solid particle or aerosol (not a gas).
    • It results from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass.
    • They absorb light and energy, a million times more than CO2.
    • Second largest contributor to climate change after CO2.
    • It is short-lived and remains in the atmosphere only for days to weeks.
    • When it falls to earth, it darkens the surface of snow, reducing their albedo, warming the snow and increases melting.
    • It accelerates melting of glaciers in the Himalayas and Tibet.
      • Reasons: emissions from agriculture burning, forest fires, and long-range transport of pollutants in winter.

    Note: Third Pole (TP): Himalaya-Hindu-Kush and Tibetan Plateau are collectively referred to as the Third Pole (TP).

Brown Carbon

      • Light-absorbing organic carbon, light brownish color.
      • It absorbs strongly in the ultraviolet wavelengths. It is less significant in the visible range.
      • tar materials from fires or coal combustion, breakdown products from biomass burning.
      • Black Carbon is emitted mainly by high temperature combustion processes (eg. diesel engines). Brown Carbon mainly by biomass combustion, soil or vegetation.
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Uranium Contamination in Groundwater

  • First time detected in Bihar.
  • The permissible limit is 30 microgram per litre. – WHO
  • However, unlike arsenic and other toxic or heavy metals, there is no limit maintained for Uranium in BIS.
  • In many parts of India, aquifers are composed of sediment carried down from the Himalayas, or from uranium-rich granitic rocks.
  • Overuse of these aquifers reduces the water level and creates oxidising conditions. It enhances the uranium’s solubility in water.

Solutions

  • Ex situ Treatment of radioactive contaminants:
    • Adsorption or ion exchange: The water-soluble contaminants are captured on a solid material.
    • Precipitation: To raise the pH & precipitate the oxide or hydroxide.
  • In-situ treatment:
    • Redox Technologies: to manipulate oxidation reduction conditions of the subsurface to reduce uranium to uranous (uranium IV) forms.
    • Flushing Technologies.
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Oil Spill

  • Oil usually spreads out rapidly across the water surface to form a thin layer that is generally referred as oil slick.
  • As the oil continues spreading, the layer becomes thinner and thinner, finally becomes a
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Techniques for cleaning Oil spills

  • Booms: These are floating barriers to oil.
  • Skimmers: These are boats that skim (scoop) spilled oil.
  • Sorbents: These are big sponges.
    • Indian Coast Guard used it in form of Graphene oil absorbent pads called ‘Sorbene Pads’ to its clean-up the Maldives Oil Spill.
    • This operation was under National Oil Spill-Disaster Contingency Plan.
  • In situ burning: This is a method of burning freshly spilled oil.
  • Chemical dispersants and Biological agents: These break down the oil into its chemical constituents. Eg.
  • Bioremediation: Oil zapper bacteria, it feeds on hydrocarbon compounds present in crude

National Oil Spill-Disaster Contingency Plan (NOS- DCP), 1996

  • It brings together the combined resources of the centre, states; and shipping, ports, and oil
  • Under National Disaster Management
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UNICEF report on Lead poisoning

  • One third of the world’s children, around 800 million, are affected by lead poisoning.
  • India accounts for around 275 million.
  • Informal and substandard recycling of lead-acid batteries: it is leading contributor to lead poisoning in developing countries.
  • Lead poisoning may lead to: lifelong neurological, cognitive and physical impairment.
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Global e waste Monitor 2020 Report

  • By UNEP + International Telecommunication Union, Global E- waste Statistics Partnership, and International Solid Waste Association
  • India is the third largest electronic waste generator in the world after China and the USA.
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Indigenous Air Unique Quality Monitoring (AUM) Photonic System

    • A system for real-time remote monitoring of air quality parameters.
    • Uses the principles of laser backscattering, statistical mechanics, optoelectronics, artificial intelligence, machine/deep learning, Internet of Things etc
    • Very high precision, sensitivity and accuracy.

    Online waste exchange platform

    • Andhra Pradesh launched the country’s first online waste exchange.
    • for safe disposal of toxic wastes and promoting recycling and reuse.
    • Promoting 6Rs – reduce, reuse, recycle, refurbish, redesign and re- manufacturing.

COVID-19 Biomedical Waste Management

  • CPCB has released revised guidelines.

    • Hospitals must be made responsible for training waste handlers about infection prevention measures.
    • Maintain record of waste generated from COVID-19 isolation wards.
    • Report opening or operation of COVID-19 ward to SPCBs and respective CBWTF located in the