- Decarbonizing Transport in India project: by NITI Aayog and International Transport Forum (ITF).
- Decarbonization transport means reducing GHG emissions due to transport.
Decarbonizing Transport initiative (DTI), 2016
- By International Transport Forums
- Other funding partners: World Bank, European Commission etc.
- To promote carbon-neutral mobility
- To help stop climate change.
Decarbonizing Transport in Emerging Economies (DTEE)
- A project under Decarbonizing Transport initiative
- It is a collaboration between ITF and Wuppertal Institute
- Supported by International Climate Initiative (IKI) of German Environment Ministry.
- Participants: India, Argentina, Azerbaijan, and Morocco.
International Transport Forum (ITF)
- An inter-governmental organization within OECD.
- Only global body with a mandate for all modes of
- A think tank for transport policy issues
- India is a member.
Nationally Determined Contributions- Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC- TIA)
- Promoting a coherent strategy for decarbonising transport.
- In India, China, and Vietnam; 2020-24.
- Joint project of 7 organisations including International Transport Forum, World Resources Institute, etc.
- Implementing agency in India is NITI
Marine Plastic Pollution
- Report titled “Breaking the Plastic Wave”- A Comprehensive Assessment of Pathways Towards Stopping Ocean Plastic Pollution was released.
Plastic in oceans
- Waste plastic makes up 80% of all marine debris.
- Microplastics (particles smaller than 5 mm) or nanoplastics (particles smaller than 100 nm) disperse even farther and deeper into the ocean.
London Convention, 1972
- Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other Matter
- London Protocol, 1996: Protocol to the London Convention
MARPOL convention, 1973
Also known as International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships.
- Main international convention for prevention of pollution of marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes.
- Adopted in 1973 at IMO.
- The 1973 MARPOL Convention had not yet entered into force.
- The 1978 MARPOL Protocol absorbed the parent Convention.
- The 1978 Protocol was adopted in response to a tanker accidents in 1976.
- India is a signatory to MARPOL.
The UN Regional Seas Programme, 1974
- It is the key regional framework for protecting the
- Under UN Environment Programme (UNEP).
- Action plans specifically addressing marine litter/plastics debris and
Global Programme of Action, 1995 (GPA)
- For Protection of Marine Environment from Land-based Activities.
- Currently the only global intergovernmental mechanism entirely dedicated to addressing this
- To prevent marine pollution from land-based sources.
Global Partnership on Marine Litter (GPML), 2012
- Launched at UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20).
- Launched in response to Manila Declaration on Furthering the Implementation of the GPA 1995.
- UNEP provides secretariat services.
The Honolulu Strategy
- To connect marine litter programs
- To foster
Global Plastic Action Partnership (GPAP)
- Co-founded by public and private sectors
- To harness the convening power of the World Economic Forum to bring together governments, businesses and civil society to translate commitments into meaningful actions.
Closing the Loop project
- Launched by UN ESCAP and Japan.
- To reduce the environmental impact of cities in South East Asia.
- By addressing plastic waste pollution in rivers and
IUCN "Close the Plastic Tap" Programme
- To generate regional and local solutions that are tailored to the different sources.
- To better understand the extent of plastic pollution.
Global Tourism Plastics Initiative
- By One Planet Network
- To stop plastic ending up as pollution.
- reducing the amount of new
- Government announced several steps to phase out single-use plastics.
- Stopping all usage to reduce the country’s plastic footprint under the Plastic Waste Management (Amendment) Rules 2018.
- Indian standard by BIS: insoluble plastic microbeads of diameter 5 mm or less are banned.
BS VI Norms
- News: Supreme Court has completely barred any sale or registration of BS IV vehicles.
Evolution of emission norms
- Mass emission norms were introduced for petrol vehicles in 1991 and in 1992 for diesel vehicles.
- 2000: Euro I equivalent India 2000 norms (Bharat Stage – BS) for passenger cars and commercial vehicles.
- Bharat Stage Norms: CPCB standards to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal combustion engines and spark-ignition engine equipment, including motor vehicles.
- The exhaust gases now covered: CO, HCs, NOx and PM.
- In 2016, India decided to skip BS-V norms and to adopt BS-VI norms by 2020.
Major standards under BS VI
- BS VI requires both automobile manufacturers and oil marketing companies (OMCs) to tweak the products.
- A BS-VI compliant vehicle engine will require BS-VI fuel.
How is BS-VI better than BS- IV?
- Nitrogen oxide level reduced: for diesel engines (70%) and petrol engines (25%)
- Particulate Matter (PM): Reduces by 80% for diesel vehicles and introduces PM limit for petrol
- Regulations provide specifications for reference and commercial fuels.
- Sulphur traces is five times lower (10 ppm).
- Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are introduced with BS VI norms.
- SCR converts harmful NOx to molecular nitrogen and oxygen, by reacting it with ammonia in presence of a catalyst.
- Real Driving Emission (RDE) will be introduced in India for the first time. (It measures emission in real time conditions, and not in laboratory conditions).
- Mandatory Onboard Diagnostics (OD): It will give the owner or repair technician access to the status of the various vehicle subsystems.
- It is a solid particle or aerosol (not a gas).
- It results from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass.
- They absorb light and energy, a million times more than CO2.
- Second largest contributor to climate change after CO2.
- It is short-lived and remains in the atmosphere only for days to weeks.
- When it falls to earth, it darkens the surface of snow, reducing their albedo, warming the snow and increases melting.
- It accelerates melting of glaciers in the Himalayas and Tibet.
- Reasons: emissions from agriculture burning, forest fires, and long-range transport of pollutants in winter.
Note: Third Pole (TP): Himalaya-Hindu-Kush and Tibetan Plateau are collectively referred to as the Third Pole (TP).
- Light-absorbing organic carbon, light brownish color.
- It absorbs strongly in the ultraviolet wavelengths. It is less significant in the visible range.
- tar materials from fires or coal combustion, breakdown products from biomass burning.
- Black Carbon is emitted mainly by high temperature combustion processes (eg. diesel engines). Brown Carbon mainly by biomass combustion, soil or vegetation.
Uranium Contamination in Groundwater
- First time detected in Bihar.
- The permissible limit is 30 microgram per litre. – WHO
- However, unlike arsenic and other toxic or heavy metals, there is no limit maintained for Uranium in BIS.
- In many parts of India, aquifers are composed of sediment carried down from the Himalayas, or from uranium-rich granitic rocks.
- Overuse of these aquifers reduces the water level and creates oxidising conditions. It enhances the uranium’s solubility in water.
- Ex situ Treatment of radioactive contaminants:
- Adsorption or ion exchange: The water-soluble contaminants are captured on a solid material.
- Precipitation: To raise the pH & precipitate the oxide or hydroxide.
- In-situ treatment:
- Redox Technologies: to manipulate oxidation reduction conditions of the subsurface to reduce uranium to uranous (uranium IV) forms.
- Flushing Technologies.
- Oil usually spreads out rapidly across the water surface to form a thin layer that is generally referred as oil slick.
- As the oil continues spreading, the layer becomes thinner and thinner, finally becomes a
Techniques for cleaning Oil spills
- Booms: These are floating barriers to oil.
- Skimmers: These are boats that skim (scoop) spilled oil.
- Sorbents: These are big sponges.
- Indian Coast Guard used it in form of Graphene oil absorbent pads called ‘Sorbene Pads’ to its clean-up the Maldives Oil Spill.
- This operation was under National Oil Spill-Disaster Contingency Plan.
- In situ burning: This is a method of burning freshly spilled oil.
- Chemical dispersants and Biological agents: These break down the oil into its chemical constituents. Eg.
- Bioremediation: Oil zapper bacteria, it feeds on hydrocarbon compounds present in crude
National Oil Spill-Disaster Contingency Plan (NOS- DCP), 1996
- It brings together the combined resources of the centre, states; and shipping, ports, and oil
- Under National Disaster Management
UNICEF report on Lead poisoning
- One third of the world’s children, around 800 million, are affected by lead poisoning.
- India accounts for around 275 million.
- Informal and substandard recycling of lead-acid batteries: it is leading contributor to lead poisoning in developing countries.
- Lead poisoning may lead to: lifelong neurological, cognitive and physical impairment.
Global e waste Monitor 2020 Report
- By UNEP + International Telecommunication Union, Global E- waste Statistics Partnership, and International Solid Waste Association
- India is the third largest electronic waste generator in the world after China and the USA.
Indigenous Air Unique Quality Monitoring (AUM) Photonic System
- A system for real-time remote monitoring of air quality parameters.
- Uses the principles of laser backscattering, statistical mechanics, optoelectronics, artificial intelligence, machine/deep learning, Internet of Things etc
- Very high precision, sensitivity and accuracy.
- Andhra Pradesh launched the country’s first online waste exchange.
- for safe disposal of toxic wastes and promoting recycling and reuse.
- Promoting 6Rs – reduce, reuse, recycle, refurbish, redesign and re- manufacturing.
COVID-19 Biomedical Waste Management
CPCB has released revised guidelines.
- Hospitals must be made responsible for training waste handlers about infection prevention measures.
- Maintain record of waste generated from COVID-19 isolation wards.
- Report opening or operation of COVID-19 ward to SPCBs and respective CBWTF located in the