CityImportance in Buddhism
LumbiniBuddha’s Birthplace
KushinagarBuddha attained Mahaparinirvana
Bodh GayaBuddha attained Enlightenment
SarnathBuddha gave his first sermon after attaining Enlightenment
KapilvastuBuddha grew up here as a child
KaushambiBuddha delivered many sermons
SankisaBuddha descended here after giving a sermon to his mother in heaven.
SravastiBuddha showed his divine prowess to non- believers. Delivered important sermons



  • Part of the Buddhist Circuit
  • Buddha attained Mahaparinirvana here.
  • Prominent sites: Mahaparinirvana Stupa and Muktabandhan Stupa (representing the Buddha’s cremation site).
  • The site of Kushinagar was first identified by Sir Alexander Cunningham in 1877, the first Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).


Guru Granth Sahib

  • the central religious text of Sikhism
  • Compiled by Guru Arjan Dev ji (5th Sikh guru) in the Adi Granth Sahib.
    • Hymns of Sikh Gurus and other religious poets like Baba Farid, Ravidas and Kabir.
  • it was given the Guruship by Guru Gobind Singh in 1708.
    • After this, it was called the Guru Granth Sahib.



Renatichol inscription

  • It records the gift of Marttus to a Brahmin (a measuring unit of land)
  • It was recently unearthed in the Cuddapah district of Andhra Pradesh.
  • It is in the Telugu language and is of8th Century A.D.
  • Related to the Cholas of Renadu or Renati Cholas
    • They ruled over the Renadu region, present-day Cuddapah district.
    • They were originally independent, later under Eastern Chalukyas.


Mongolian Kanjur

  • A Buddhist canonical text of Mongolian Buddhists.
  • Reprinting of 108 volumes of Mongolian Kanjur
    • Under the National Mission for Manuscripts (NMM).
    • NMM is under the Ministry of Tourism and Culture.




  • An oral language of Tibeto-Burman language family.
  • Tangams community of Arunachal Pradesh.
  • critically endangered under UNESCO World Atlas of Endangered Languages.



Kodumanal excavation, Tamil Nadu

  • Throws light on burial rituals and afterlife concept in megalithic culture.
  • A trade-cum-industrial centre from 5th CE BC to 1st CE BC.

Megalith is a great structure built on large-size stone.

  • They served the funerary or cult purpose.
  • Found mainly in the Neolithic age.
  • Prevalent in Deccan, south India, north-east and Kashmir.



Karikiyoor Rock paintings, TN

  • Located in Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve, Niligiri forests, TN.
  • Scenes of the hunting habits and ways of life of local communities.
  • The script in these paintings resembles that of Indus civilization sites.
  • Irula tribes use these for ritualistic purposes. Irulas inhabit in Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu and Kerela. They are PVTG.
  • Approx. half of the paintings are destroyed by trekkers, tourists, and vandals.



Sri Kurumba Bhagavathy Temple

  • In Kodungallur, Kerala
  • Kodungallur was the port city of Chera kings of Tamil Nadu.
  • It was an integral part of their capital Mahodayapuram.
  • The Greeks and Romans also knew the city as Muziri.
  • Kannagi is associated with the Pattini cult.
  • She is the heroine of the Tamil epic Silappathikaram (by Ilango Adigal)



Central Sanskrit Universities Act, 2020

  • To convert three Sanskrit universities into Central Sanskrit Universities.
    • Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan, New Delhi
    • Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, New Delhi, and
    • Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, Tirupati
  • Promotion of Sanskrit.
  • Special provisions for integrated courses in humanities, social sciences, and science.
  • Train manpower for the overall development of Sanskrit.



Chardham Pariyojana

  • To improve connectivity for Char-Dham in Uttarakhand. (Kedarnath, Badrinath, Yamunotri & Gangothri).
  • Connectivity to the India-China border.
  • Recently, 440 meter-long tunnel was inaugurated in Chamba
  • An initiative by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways


Hagia Sophia, Turkey

  • An iconic Istanbul museum; has been converted into a mosque recently.
  • A UNESCO World Heritage site.
  • Originally built as a cathedral for the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in the 6th century.
  • Became a mosque with the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
  • It became a museum (In 1934).



High Impact Community Development Projects

Under this scheme, India provides assistance for reconstruction/repair of heritage sites in other countries.


a. Pashupatinath Temple in Kathmandu, Nepal

  • The largest temple complex in Nepal.
  • Stretches on both sides of the Bagmati River.
  • It is one of the UNESCO Cultural Heritage Sites.
  • The project is part of Nepal-Bharat Maitri: Development Partnership.



b. Sree Sree Joykali Matar temple, Natore, Bangladesh

  • Among the oldest temples in Bangladesh
  • Built by Dayaram Roy, the founder of Dighapatia Royal Family. (approx. 300 years back)
  • MoU for the reconstruction of the temple was signed in 2016.



SPIC MACAY movement, 1977

Society for the Promotion of Indian Classical Music and Culture Amongst Youth

  • It is a non-political, nationwide, voluntary youth movement by Dr Kiran Seth.
  • Established by Dr. Kiran Seth in 1977 at IIT Delhi.
  • It promotes intangible aspects of Indian cultural heritage.
    • Eg. by promoting Indian classical music, classical dance, folk music, yoga, meditation, crafts and other aspects of Indian culture; it is a movement with chapters in over 300 towns all over the world.
  • Supported by: Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, and Ministry of Education.



Sardar Patel National Unity Award

  • The highest civilian award in the field of contribution to the unity and integrity of India.
  • Instituted by the Ministry of Home Affairs in 2019.

Pulitzer Prize 2020

  • Given across 22 categories in journalism and arts: newspaper, magazine, online journalism, photojournalism and literature.
  • Being given since 1917
  • The award is administered by Columbia University.
  • Named after American newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer.
  • News: Three photojournalists from J&K are among 2020 Pulitzer Prize winners – Channi Anand, Mukhtar Khan and Dar Yasin.



Gandhi Peace Prize (GPP)

  • Award is given by the Ministry of Culture. Instituted in 1995.
  • Given to individuals, associations, institutions or organizations.
  • open to all persons regardless of nationality, race, language, caste, creed, or gender.
  • The jury of GPP is headed by PM.


Ramon Magsaysay awards

  • Regarded as Asia’s Nobel Prize. It was started in 1957.
  • Named after the third president of the Philippines.
  • Award categories: government service; public service; community leadership; journalism, literature, and creative communication arts; and peace and international understanding, Emergent Leadership.
  • Canceled this year due to COVID -19.


International Yoga Day (IYD)

  • In 2014, the UN declared June 21 as IYD.
  • This year’s theme: Yoga for Health– Yoga at Home.