|City||Importance in Buddhism|
|Kushinagar||Buddha attained Mahaparinirvana|
|Bodh Gaya||Buddha attained Enlightenment|
|Sarnath||Buddha gave his first sermon after attaining Enlightenment|
|Kapilvastu||Buddha grew up here as a child|
|Kaushambi||Buddha delivered many sermons|
|Sankisa||Buddha descended here after giving a sermon to his mother in heaven.|
|Sravasti||Buddha showed his divine prowess to non- believers. Delivered important sermons|
- Part of the Buddhist Circuit
- Buddha attained Mahaparinirvana here.
- Prominent sites: Mahaparinirvana Stupa and Muktabandhan Stupa (representing the Buddha’s cremation site).
- The site of Kushinagar was first identified by Sir Alexander Cunningham in 1877, the first Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).
Guru Granth Sahib
- the central religious text of Sikhism
- Compiled by Guru Arjan Dev ji (5th Sikh guru) in the Adi Granth Sahib.
- Hymns of Sikh Gurus and other religious poets like Baba Farid, Ravidas and Kabir.
- it was given the Guruship by Guru Gobind Singh in 1708.
- After this, it was called the Guru Granth Sahib.
- It records the gift of Marttus to a Brahmin (a measuring unit of land)
- It was recently unearthed in the Cuddapah district of Andhra Pradesh.
- It is in the Telugu language and is of8th Century A.D.
- Related to the Cholas of Renadu or Renati Cholas
- They ruled over the Renadu region, present-day Cuddapah district.
- They were originally independent, later under Eastern Chalukyas.
- A Buddhist canonical text of Mongolian Buddhists.
- Reprinting of 108 volumes of Mongolian Kanjur
- Under the National Mission for Manuscripts (NMM).
- NMM is under the Ministry of Tourism and Culture.
- An oral language of Tibeto-Burman language family.
- Tangams community of Arunachal Pradesh.
- critically endangered under UNESCO World Atlas of Endangered Languages.
Kodumanal excavation, Tamil Nadu
- Throws light on burial rituals and afterlife concept in megalithic culture.
- A trade-cum-industrial centre from 5th CE BC to 1st CE BC.
Megalith is a great structure built on large-size stone.
- They served the funerary or cult purpose.
- Found mainly in the Neolithic age.
- Prevalent in Deccan, south India, north-east and Kashmir.
Karikiyoor Rock paintings, TN
- Located in Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve, Niligiri forests, TN.
- Scenes of the hunting habits and ways of life of local communities.
- The script in these paintings resembles that of Indus civilization sites.
- Irula tribes use these for ritualistic purposes. Irulas inhabit in Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu and Kerela. They are PVTG.
- Approx. half of the paintings are destroyed by trekkers, tourists, and vandals.
Sri Kurumba Bhagavathy Temple
- In Kodungallur, Kerala
- Kodungallur was the port city of Chera kings of Tamil Nadu.
- It was an integral part of their capital Mahodayapuram.
- The Greeks and Romans also knew the city as Muziri.
- Kannagi is associated with the Pattini cult.
- She is the heroine of the Tamil epic Silappathikaram (by Ilango Adigal)
Central Sanskrit Universities Act, 2020
- To convert three Sanskrit universities into Central Sanskrit Universities.
- Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan, New Delhi
- Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, New Delhi, and
- Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, Tirupati
- Promotion of Sanskrit.
- Special provisions for integrated courses in humanities, social sciences, and science.
- Train manpower for the overall development of Sanskrit.
- To improve connectivity for Char-Dham in Uttarakhand. (Kedarnath, Badrinath, Yamunotri & Gangothri).
- Connectivity to the India-China border.
- Recently, 440 meter-long tunnel was inaugurated in Chamba
- An initiative by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways
Hagia Sophia, Turkey
- An iconic Istanbul museum; has been converted into a mosque recently.
- A UNESCO World Heritage site.
- Originally built as a cathedral for the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in the 6th century.
- Became a mosque with the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
- It became a museum (In 1934).
High Impact Community Development Projects
Under this scheme, India provides assistance for reconstruction/repair of heritage sites in other countries.
a. Pashupatinath Temple in Kathmandu, Nepal
- The largest temple complex in Nepal.
- Stretches on both sides of the Bagmati River.
- It is one of the UNESCO Cultural Heritage Sites.
- The project is part of Nepal-Bharat Maitri: Development Partnership.
b. Sree Sree Joykali Matar temple, Natore, Bangladesh
- Among the oldest temples in Bangladesh
- Built by Dayaram Roy, the founder of Dighapatia Royal Family. (approx. 300 years back)
- MoU for the reconstruction of the temple was signed in 2016.
SPIC MACAY movement, 1977
Society for the Promotion of Indian Classical Music and Culture Amongst Youth
- It is a non-political, nationwide, voluntary youth movement by Dr Kiran Seth.
- Established by Dr. Kiran Seth in 1977 at IIT Delhi.
- It promotes intangible aspects of Indian cultural heritage.
- Eg. by promoting Indian classical music, classical dance, folk music, yoga, meditation, crafts and other aspects of Indian culture; it is a movement with chapters in over 300 towns all over the world.
- Supported by: Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, and Ministry of Education.
Sardar Patel National Unity Award
- The highest civilian award in the field of contribution to the unity and integrity of India.
- Instituted by the Ministry of Home Affairs in 2019.
Pulitzer Prize 2020
- Given across 22 categories in journalism and arts: newspaper, magazine, online journalism, photojournalism and literature.
- Being given since 1917
- The award is administered by Columbia University.
- Named after American newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer.
- News: Three photojournalists from J&K are among 2020 Pulitzer Prize winners – Channi Anand, Mukhtar Khan and Dar Yasin.
Gandhi Peace Prize (GPP)
- Award is given by the Ministry of Culture. Instituted in 1995.
- Given to individuals, associations, institutions or organizations.
- open to all persons regardless of nationality, race, language, caste, creed, or gender.
- The jury of GPP is headed by PM.
Ramon Magsaysay awards
- Regarded as Asia’s Nobel Prize. It was started in 1957.
- Named after the third president of the Philippines.
- Award categories: government service; public service; community leadership; journalism, literature, and creative communication arts; and peace and international understanding, Emergent Leadership.
- Canceled this year due to COVID -19.
International Yoga Day (IYD)
- In 2014, the UN declared June 21 as IYD.
- This year’s theme: Yoga for Health– Yoga at Home.