Sociology Optional


Main Faculty: Krishna Sir


Sociology Optional: From Basic to Advanced

40 Years UPSC Previous Year Papers Included

No Need to Read Any Book

Course Duration: 100 Hours. Number of Pages: Approx. 1/3rd of the market.


Course completion date: 45 days before Mains

Synopsis IAS Optional courses cover the subjects for UPSC in most comprehensive and lucid manner, which is helpful for the prestigious UPSC IAS and IFS Examinations.


Krishna Sir

Main Faculty
Content Developer

Dr. Mohammad Zia

Guest Faculty

Anubhav Deepani

Guest Faculty

Course Content

SOCIOLOGY Syllabus Redefined

Unit 1. Sociology Fundamentals

Unit 1. Sociology – The Discipline: Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of Sociology. Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences. Sociology and common sense.

Unit 2. Sociology as Science: Science, scientific method and critique. Major theoretical strands of research methodology. Positivism and its critique. Fact value and objectivity. Non-positivist methodologies.

Unit 3. Research Methods and Analysis: Qualitative and quantitative methods. Techniques of data collection. Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.

Unit 2. Thinkers

Unit 4. Sociological Thinkers: Karl Marx– Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle. Emile Durkheim– Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society. Max Weber– Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. Talcolt Parsons– Social system, pattern variables. Robert K. Merton– Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups. Mead – Self and identity.

Unit 11. Introducing Indian Society: (i) Perspectives on the Study of Indian Society: Indology (G.S. Ghure). Structural functionalism (M. N. Srinivas). Marxist sociology (A. R. Desai).

Unit 3. Sociology of Religion

Unit 8. Religion and Society: Sociological theories of religion. Emile Durkheim– religion (Topic 4). Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults. Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.

Unit 18. Social Structure: (vi) Religion and Society: Religious communities in India. Problems of religious minorities.

Unit 22. Social Changes in India: (iv) Politics and Society: Secularization.

Unit 25. communalism, religious revivalism.

Unit 4. Political sociology

Unit 7. Politics and Society: Sociological theories of power. Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties. Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology. Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.

Unit 22. Social Changes in India: (iv) Politics and Society: Nation, democracy and citizenship. Political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite. Regionalism and decentralization of power.

Unit 5. Social Stratification

Unit 5. Stratification and Mobility: Concepts- equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation. Theories of social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory. Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race. Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.

Unit 14. Social Structure: (ii) Caste System: Perspectives on the study of caste systems: G. S. Ghurye, M. N. Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille. Features of caste system. Untouchability-forms and perspectives. Unit 25. Caste conflicts.

Unit 15. Social Structure: (iii) Tribal Communities in India: Definitional problems. Geographical spread. Colonial policies and tribes. Issues of integration and autonomy.

Unit 16. Social Structure: (iv) Social Classes in India: Agrarian class structure. Industrial class structure. Middle classes in India.

Unit 6. Kinship

Unit 9. Systems of Kinship: Family, household, marriage. Types and forms of family. Lineage and descent. Patriarchy and sexual division of labour. Contemporary trends.

Unit 17. Social Structure: (v) Systems of Kinship in India: Lineage and descent in India. Types of kinship systems. Family and marriage in India. Household dimensions of the family. Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour.

Unit 7. Rural and Urban sociology

Unit 13. Social Structure: (i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure: The idea of Indian village and village studies. Agrarian social structure – evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.

Unit 20. Social Changes in India: (ii) Rural and Agrarian Transformation in India: Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes. Green revolution and social change. Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture. Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.

Unit 21. Social Changes in India: (iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India: Growth of urban settlements in India. Slums and deprivation in urban areas.

Unit 8. Industrial Sociology

Unit 6. Works and Economic Life: Social organization of work in different types of society- slave society, feudal society, industrial /capitalist society. Formal and informal organization of work. Labour and society.

Unit 21. Social Changes in India: (iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India: Evolution of modern industry in India. Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization. Informal sector, child labour.

Unit 9. Demographic sociology

Unit 24. Social Changes in India: (vi) Population Dynamics: Population size, growth, composition and distribution. Components of population growth: birth, death, migration. Population Policy and family planning. Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.

Unit 10. Historical Sociology

10.1 Evolution

Unit 12. Introducing Indian Society: (ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society: Social background of Indian nationalism. Modernization of Indian tradition. Protests and movements during the colonial period. Social reforms.

Unit 19. Social Changes in India: (i) Visions of Social Change in India: Idea of development planning and mixed economy. Constitution, law and social change. Education and social change.

10.2 Social Changes

Unit 10. Social Change in Modern Society: Sociological theories of social change. Development and dependency. Agents of social change. Education and social change. Science, technology and social change.

Unit 23. Social Changes in India: (v) Social Movements in Modern India: Peasants and farmers movements. Women’s movement. Backward classes & Dalit movements. Environmental movements. Ethnicity and Identity movements.

Unit 25. Social Changes in India: (vii) Challenges of Social Transformation: Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability. Poverty, deprivation and inequalities. Violence against women. Illiteracy and disparities in education. Ethnic conflicts.


A Scientific and Redefined Way to Learn Optionals: All the UPSC Optional Subjects Online Coaching Courses are divided into two Levels

  • Free course: These are free Lectures available on YouTube or at our online learning portal.
  • Advanced Courses (Registered users): It covers full syllabus.

Features of advanced courses

  • The content development team and faculty members for all the optionals are the subject matter experts, and not the amateur aspirants.
  • Advanced lectures: These include applied part and in depth-learning for all major topics. These are not available at YouTube.
  • Study Material: Lecture content is available for registered students in PDF format.
  • No book needed: For making content, we start with NCERTs, and refer standard text books, reference books, research papers and journals. We update the optional content with current affairs.
  • Personalized student dashboard: Registered Students get a Personalized student dashboard with a login password. You can watch the lectures anywhere, anytime. You can also track studies through realtime course progress.
  • Answer Writing Practice: There are extensive answer writing sessions exactly based on UPSC pattern. Kindly note that evaluation is not part of the Classroom course. Evaluation is available for test series students.
  • Model Answers: You will get model answers to the previous year questions, expected questions etc.
  • Expert Support: You will get Doubt clearance Sessions via mail, chat, or phone, as and when required.
  • Offline centre Support at Delhi.
  • Two-way feedback: We take students’ feedback seriously. We can remove or replace faculties if the feedback is not good.

Our Methodology for content Development

We are a content-based coaching. We spend 6-8 hours for a 20-30 minute lecture to provide you the most comprehensive and Synoptic content for UPSC IAS (Indian Administrative Services) and IFS (Indian Forest Services).

Our Approach- Syllabus and previous year papers are the Key!

  • It is a well-established fact that at least 80-90% of questions are repeated directly or indirectly in UPSC Optional Papers.
  • Considering this fact, the content is made while considering two parameters: UPSC Syllabus Plus Previous Year Question Papers.
  • Our classroom lectures, content, and test Series are based on UPSC pattern.
  • The Optional content is made from standard textbooks and references, research papers, and Journals. This requires years of learning and understanding of the subjects.
  • Minimum Content: 30% of the market. No garbage material. No other institute is even closer to us in content.
  • The content development team and faculty members are not the amateur UPSC aspirants. For optionals, we have subject matter experts from pioneer universities of India like JNU, Jamia Millia, Delhi University, AMU among others.


Sociology Optional Classroom

Sociology Optional Test Series

Sociology Optional Foundation (Classroom + Test Series)