Geology Optional


The Geology Optional for UPSC IAS, IFS (Indian Forest Services), GSI and NET JRF is designed by Krishna Sir, who is the content developer and main faculty for this course.

  • The Course includes Video Lectures and E-Books.
  • The course includes Geology UPSC Previous Year Papers 40 Years Solved. Model answers are made by combining topics from IAS and IFS Syllabus. Learn More about UPSC Combined Syllabus for Geology- Download Free E-Book.
  • The course includes Geology Optional Book Summaries. All the Standard Book Summaries are uploaded one by one.
  • No book needed: For making content, we start with NCERTs, and refer standard text books, reference books, research papers and journals. We update the optional content with current affairs.

You can solve 54/56 questions in Paper 1 and Paper 2 in UPSC CSE 2021 Mains from Previous Year Papers. View Source of Questions

You can solve 52/56 questions in Paper 1 and Paper 2 in UPSC IFS 2021 Mains from Previous Year Papers. View Source of Questions

All these questions can be solved if you have followed Synopsis IAS, because Synopsis IAS make content from Previous Year Papers + Syllabus. View More

  • Strategy Videos by Krishna Sir: Previous Year Questions for Geology Optional UPSC is discussed in detailed manner, in which the strategy for Answer Writing in Geology Optional is covered.
    • You will be able to self-evaluate the answers after going through these videos.
    • You will learn to apply paper 1 concepts in Paper 2; use tables, charts, examples etc.; and implement other important aspects of Geology in your answers.
  • Discussion Videos for Previous Year Questions for Geology Optional.
  • Theory Classes for all the topics in Syllabus.
Our Methodology for content Development
  • We are a content-based coaching. We spend 6-8 hours for a 20-30 minute lecture to provide you the most comprehensive and Synoptic content for UPSC IAS (Indian Administrative Services) and IFS (Indian Forest Services).
  • Our Approach- Syllabus and previous year papers are the Key! It is a well-established fact that at least 90% of questions are repeated directly or indirectly in UPSC Optional Papers. Considering this fact, the content is made while considering two parameters: UPSC Syllabus Plus Previous Year Question Papers.

A Scientific and Redefined Way to Learn Optionals: All the questions from 1979 to 2021 IFS are updated, along with standard book summaries.

Other Features of the courses

  • Advanced lectures: These include applied part and in depth-learning for all major topics.
  • Study Material: Lecture content is available for registered students in PDF E-Book format.
  • Personalized student dashboard: Registered Students get a Personalized student dashboard with a login password. You can watch the lectures anywhere, anytime.
  • Answer Writing Practice: There are extensive answer writing sessions exactly based on UPSC pattern. Kindly note that evaluation is not part of the Classroom course. Evaluation is available for test series students.
  • Model Answers: You will get model answers to the previous year questions, expected questions etc.
  • Expert Support: You will get Doubt clearance Sessions via mail, chat, or phone, as and when required.
  • Offline centre Support at Delhi.
  • Two-way feedback: We take students’ feedback seriously. We can remove or replace faculties if the feedback is not good.


  • Krishna Sir is the content developer and Main Faculty for Geology Optional course.
  • Himani Ma’am is an IITian from Geology Academic Background.

Geology Optional by Synopsis IAS covers the subjects for UPSC in the most comprehensive and lucid manner.

Main Faculty: Krishna Sir


Summary of Standard Books

40 Years UPSC Previous Year Papers Included, as per redefined Syllabus

No Need to Read or Purchase Any Other Book

Geology Optional: From Basic to Advanced


Course Duration: 100 Hours. Number of Pages: Approx. 1/3rd of the market.

Free Study Material

Geology Optional
Previous Year Question (1979-2021)

by Krishna Sir
Redefined Syllabus and PYQs
Updated till IFS 2021

Igneous Petrology

Complete Book by Krishna Sir
Updated for 2022

Sedimentary Petrology

Complete Book by Krishna Sir
Updated for 2022

Course Content

  • General Geology : The Solar System, meteorites, origin and interior of the earth and age of earth; Volcanoes—causes and products, Volcanic belts. Earthquakes—causes, effects, seismic of zone of India; Island arcs, trenches and mid-ocean ridges; Continental drift; Seafloor spreading, plate tectonics. Isostasy.
  • Geomorphology and Remote Sensing : Basic concepts of geomorphology. Weathering and soil formations; Landforms, slopes and drainage. Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation. Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology; Coastal geomorphology; Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering; hydrology and environmental studies; Geomorphology of Indian sub-continent. Aerial photographs and their interpretation—merits and limitations; The Electromagnetic spectrum. Orbiting Satellites and Sensor Systems. Indian Remote Sensing Satellites. Satellite data products; Applications of remote sensing in geology; The Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS)—its applications.
  • Structural Geology : rinciples of geologic mapping and map reading, projection diagrams, Stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials; Strain markers in deformed rocks. Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions. Folds and faults classification and mechanics; Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities; Time-relationship between crystallization and deformation.
  • Paleontology : Species—definition and nomenclature; Megafossils and Microfossils. Modes of preservation of fossils; Different kinds of microfossils; Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies; Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidae. Siwalik fauna.
  • Indian Stratigraphy : Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostrati-graphic, biostratigraphic, chrono-stratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships; Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks of India; Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance. Major boundary problems—Cambrian/ Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/Pleistocene; Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian sub-continent in the geological past. Tectonic framework of India. Evolution of the Himalayas.
  • Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology : Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water; Movement of subsurface water; Springs; Porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of aquifers; Water-bearing characteristics of rocks; Groundwater chemistry. Salt water intrusion. Types of wells. Drainage basin morphometry; Exploration for groundwater; Groundwater recharge; Problems and management of groundwater; Rainwater harvesting; Engineering properties of rocks; Geological investigations for dams, tunnels highways, railway and bridges; Rock as construction material; Landslides causes, prevention and rehabilitation; Earthquake-resistant structures.

  • Mineralogy : Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry; International system of crystallographic notation; Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry; Elements of X-ray crystallography. Physical and chemical characters of rock forming silicate mineral groups; Structural classification of silicates; Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks; Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups; Clay minerals. Optical properties of common rock forming minerals; Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals.
  • Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology : Generation and crystallisation of magmas. Crystallisation of albite—anorthite, diopside—anorthite and diopside—wollastonite—silica systems. Bowen's Reaction Principle; Magmatic differentiation and assimilation. Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structures of igneous rocks. Petrography and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks. Carbonatites. Deccan volcanic province. Types and agents of metamorphism. Metamorphic grades and zones; Phase rule. Facies of regional and contact metamorphism; ACF and AKF diagrams; Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks. Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks; Minerals assemblages. Retrograde metamorphism; Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatites. Granulite terrains of India.
  • Sedimenary Petrology : Sedimentas and Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation; digenesis and lithification; Clastic and non-clastic rocks-their classification, petrography and depositional environment; Sedimentary facies and provenance. Sedimentary structures and their significance. Heavy minerals and their significance. Sedimentary basins of India.
  • Economic Geology : Ore, ore mineral and gangue, tenor of ore. Classification of ore deposits; Processes of formation of mineral deposits; Controls of ore localisation; Ore texures and structures; Metallogenic epochs and provinces; Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead, zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals; Deposits of coal and petroleum in India, National Mineral Policy; Conservation and utilization of mineral resources. Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.
  • Mining Geology : Methods of prospecting—geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical; Techniques of sampling. Estimation of reserves of ore; Methods of exploration and mining-metallic ores, industrial minerals, marine mineral resources and building stones. Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.
  • Geochemistry and Environmental Geology : Cosmic abundance of elements. Composition of the planets and meteorites. Structure and composition of earth and distribution of elements. Trace elements. Elements of crystal chemistry-types of chemical bonds, coordination number. Isomorphism and polymorphism. Elementary thermodynamics. Natural hazards—floods, mass wasting, costal hazards, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation; Environmental impact of urbanization, mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly-ash. Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution. Environment protection—legislative measures in India; Sea level changes: causes and impact.

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