Forestry Optional @ Rs. 2999 Only


The Forestry Optional for UPSC Indian Forest Services and other exams is designed by Krishna Sir, who is the content developer main faculty for this course.

  • The Course includes E-Books. The full syllabus is covered. 
  • The course includes Forestry UPSC Previous Year Papers 15+ Years Solved. Model answers are provided, which are directly applicable in the exam.
  • The course includes Forestry Optional Book Summaries. All the Standard Book Summaries are uploaded one by one.
  • No book needed: For making content, we start with NCERTs, and refer standard text books, reference books, research papers and journals. We update the optional content with current affairs.
  • The Course does not includes Video Lectures for complete syllabus. Whenever we’ll launch the video lectures for forestry, the current students will be upgraded to the video batch for no extra fee.
  • Guidance Videos by Krishna Sir
    • You will be able to self-evaluate the answers after going through these videos.
    • You will learn to apply paper 1 concepts in Paper 2; use tables, charts, examples etc.; and implement other important aspects of Forestry in your answers.
Our Methodology for content Development
  • We are a content-based coaching. We spend 6-8 hours for a 20-30 minute lecture to provide you the most comprehensive and Synoptic content for UPSC IAS (Indian Administrative Services) and IFS (Indian Forest Services).
  • Our Approach- Syllabus and previous year papers are the Key! It is a well-established fact that at least 90% of questions are repeated directly or indirectly in UPSC Optional Papers. Considering this fact, the content is made while considering two parameters: UPSC Syllabus Plus Previous Year Question Papers.

A Scientific and Redefined Way to Learn Optionals: All the questions for 15+ years for IFS are updated, along with standard book summaries.

Topics Covered

  • Paper I (eight units): (1) Silviculture – General (2) Silviculture – Systems (3) Silviculture – Mangrove and Cold desert (4) Silviculture of trees (5) Agroforestry (6) Forest Soils, (7) Environmental Conservation and Biodiversity (8) Tree Improvement and Seed Technology.
  • Paper II consists (eight units): (1) Forest Management (2) Forest Working Plan (3) Forest Mensuration and Remote Sensing (4) Surveying and Forest Engineering (5) Forest Ecology and Ethnobotany (6) Forest Resources and Utilization (7) Forest Protection & wildlife Biology (8) Forest Economics and Legislation.

Other Features of the courses

  • Guidance lectures by Krishna Sir
  • Study Material: The content is available for registered students in PDF E-Book format.
  • Personalized student dashboard: Registered Students get a Personalized student dashboard with a login password.
  • Answer Writing Practice: There are answer writing sessions exactly based on UPSC pattern. Kindly note that evaluation is not part of this course.
  • Model Answers: You will get model answers to the previous year questions, expected questions etc.
  • Expert Support: You will get Doubt clearance Sessions via mail, chat, or phone, as and when required.
  • Offline centre Support at Delhi.
  • Two-way feedback: We take students’ feedback seriously. We can remove or replace faculties if the feedback is not good.


  • Krishna Sir is the content developer for Forestry Optional course.

Forestry Optional by Synopsis IAS covers the subjects for UPSC in the most comprehensive and lucid manner.

A course by Krishna Sir


Summary of Standard Books

15+ Years UPSC Previous Year Papers Included, as per redefined Syllabus

No Need to Read or Purchase Any Other Book

Forestry Optional: From Basic to Advanced


Number of Pages: Approx. 1/3rd of the market.

Course Content

Forestry Optional Paper 1 Syllabus

Paper I

Section A

  1. Silviculture – General

General Silvicultural Principles: Ecological and physiological factors influencing vegetation, natural and artificial regeneration of forests; methods of propagation, grafting techniques; site factors; nursery and planting techniques nursery beds, poly-bags and maintenance, water budgeting, grading and hardening of seedlings; special approaches; establishment and tending.

  1. Silviculture – Systems

Clear felling, uniform shelter wood selection, coppice and conversion systems, Management of silviculture systems of temperate, subtropical, humid tropical, dry tropical and coastal tropical forests with special reference to plantation silviculture, choice of species, establishment and management of standards, enrichment methods, technical constraints, intensive mechanized methods, aerial seeding, thinning.

  1. Silviculture – Mangrove and Cold desert

Mangrove: Habitat and characteristics, mangrove, plantation-establishment and rehabilitation of degraded mangrove formations; silvicultural systems for mangrove; protection of habitats against natural disasters. Cold desert- Characteristics, identification and management of species.

  1. Silviculture of trees

Traditional and recent advances in tropical silvicultural research and practices. Silviculture of some of the economically important species in India such as Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Acacia auriculiformis, Albizzia lebbeck, Albizzia procera, Anthocephalus Cadamba, Anogeissus latifokia, Azadirachta indica, Bamboo spp, Butea monosperma, Cassia siamea, Casuarina equisetifolia, Cedrus deodara, Chukrasia tabularis, Dalbergia sisoo, Dipterocarpus spp, Emblica officindils, Eucalyptus spp, Gmelina Arborea, Hardwickia binata, Largerstroemia Lanceolata, Pinus roxburghi, Populus spp, Pterocarpus marsupium, Prosopis juliflora, Santalum album, Semecarpus anacrdium,. Shorea robusta, Salmalia malabaricum, Tectona grandis, Terminalis tomemtosa,Tamarindus indica.


Section B

  1. Agroforestry, Social Forestry, Joint Forest Management and Tribology

Agroforestry – Scope and necessity; role in the life of people and domestic animals and in integrated land use, planning especially related to (i) soil and water conservation; (ii) water recharge; (iii) nutrient availability to crops; (iv) nature and eco-system preservation including ecological balances through pest-predator relationships and (v) Providing opportunities for enhancing biodiversity, medicinal and other flora and fauna. Agro forestry systems under different agroecological zones; selection of species and role of multipurpose trees and NTFPs, techniques, food, fodder and fuel security. Research and Extension needs.

Social/Urban Forestry: Objectives, scope and necessity; peoples participation.

JFM – Principles, objectives, methodology, scope, benefits and role of NGOs.

Tribology: Tribal scene in India; tribes, concept of races, Principles of social grouping, stages of tribal economy, education, cultural tradition, customs, ethos and participation in forestry programmes.

  1. Forest Soils, soil Conservation and Watershed Management

Forests Soils: Classification, factors affecting soil formation; physical, chemical and biological properties.

Soil conservation – definition, causes for erosion; types–wind and water erosion; conservation and management of eroded soils/areas, wind breaks, shelter belts; sand dunes; reclamation of saline and alkaline soils, water logged and other waste lands. Role of forests in conserving soils. Maintenance and build up of soil organic matter, provision of loppings for green leaf manuring; forest leaf litter and composting; Role of micro-organisms in ameliorating soils; N and C cycles, VAM.

Watershed Management – Concepts of watershed; role of mini-forests and forest trees in overall resource management, forest hydrology, watershed development in respect of torrent control, river channel stabilization, avalanche and landslide controls, rehabilitation of degraded areas; hilly and mountain areas; watershed management and environmental functions of forests; water-harvesting and conservation; ground water recharge and watershed management; role of integrating forest trees, horticultural crops, field crops, grass and fodders.

  1. Environmental Conservation and Biodiversity

Environment: Components and importance, principles of conservation, impact of deforestation; forest fires and various human activities like mining, construction and developmental projects, population growth on environment.

Pollution: Types, Global warming, green house effects, ozone layer depletion, acid rain, impact and control measures, environmental monitoring; concept of sustainable development. Role of trees and forests in environmental conservation; control and prevention of air, water and noise pollution. Environmental policy and legislation in India. Environmental impact Assessment, Economics assessment of watershed development vis-a-vis ecological and environmental protection.

  1. Tree Improvement and Seed Technology

General concept of tree improvement, methods and techniques, variation and its use, provenance, seed source, exotics; quantitative aspects of forest tree improvement, seed production and seed orchards, progeny tests, use of tree improvement in natural forest and stand improvement, genetic testing programming, selection and breeding for resistance to diseases, insects, and adverse environment; the genetic base, forest genetic resources and gene conservation in situ and ex-situ. Cost benefit ratio, economic evaluation.

Forestry Optional Paper 2 Syllabus

Paper II

Section A

  1. Forest Management and Management Systems

Objective and principles; techniques; stand structure and dynamics, sustained yield relation; rotation, normal forest, growing stock; regulation of yield; management of forest plantations, commercial forests, forest cover monitoring. Approaches viz., (i) site-specific planning, (ii) strategic planning, (iii) Approval, sanction and expenditure. (iv) Monitoring (v) Reporting and governance. Details of steps involved such as formation of Village Forest Committees, Joint Forest Participatory Management.

  1. Forest Working Plan

Forest planning, evaluation and monitoring tools and approaches for integrated planning; multipurpose development of forest resources and forest industries development; working plans and working schemes, their role in nature conservation, bio-diversity and other dimensions; preparation and control. Divisional Working Plans, Annual Plan of Operations.

  1. Forest Mensuration and Remote Sensing

Methods of measuring – diameter, girth, height and volume of trees; form-factor; volume estimation of stand, current annual increment; mean annual increment, Sampling methods and sample plots. Yield calculation; yield and stand tables, forest cover monitoring through remote sensing; Geographic Information Systems for management and modelling.

  1. Surveying and Forest Engineering

Forest surveying – different methods of surveying, maps and map reading. Basic principles of forest engineering. Building materials and construction. Roads and Bridges, General principles, objects, types, simple design and construction of timber bridges.

Section B

  1. Forest Ecology and Ethnobotany

Forest Ecology: Biotic and abiotic components, forest eco-systems; forest community concepts; vegetation concepts, ecological succession and climax, primary productivity, nutrient cycling and water relations; physiology in stress environments (drought, water logging salinity and alkalinity). Forest types in India, identification of species, composition and associations; dendrology, taxonomic classification, principles and establishment of herbaria and arboreta. Conservation of forest ecosystems. Clonal parks. Role of Ethnobotany in Indian Systems of Medicine; Ayurveda and Unani – Introduction, nomenclature, habitat, distribution and botanical features of medicinal and aromatic plants. Factors affecting action and toxicity of drug plants and their chemical constituents.

  1. Forest Resources and Utilization

Environmentally sound forest harvesting practices; logging and extraction techniques and principles, transportation systems, storage and sale; Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) – definition and scope; gums, resins, oleoresins, fibres, oil seeds nuts, rubber, canes, bamboos, medicinal plants, charcoal, lac and shellac, katha and Bidi leaves, collection; processing and disposal.

Need and importance of wood seasoning and preservation; general principles of seasoning, air and kiln seasoning, solar dehumidification, steam heated and electrical kilns. Composite wood; adhesives-manufacture, properties, uses, plywood manufacture – properties, uses, fibre boards-manufacture properties, uses; particle boards-manufacture; properties, uses. Present status of composite wood industry in India and future expansion plans.

Pulp – paper and rayon; present position of supply of raw material to industry, wood substitution, utilization of plantation wood; problems and possibilities. Anatomical structure of wood, defects and abnormalities of wood, timber identification – general principles.

  1. Forest Protection & wildlife Biology

Injuries to forest – abiotic and biotic, destructive agencies, insect-pests and disease, effects of air pollution on forests and forest die back. Susceptibility of forests to damage, nature of damage, cause, prevention, protective measures and benefits due to chemical and biological control. General forest protection against fire, equipment and methods, controlled use of fire, economic and environmental costs; timber salvage operations after natural disasters.

Role of afforestation and forest regeneration in absorption of CO2. Rotational and controlled grazing, different methods of control against grazing and browsing animals; effect of wild animals on forest regeneration, human impacts; encroachment, poaching, grazing, live fencing, theft, shifting cultivation and control.

  1. Forest Economics and Legislation

Forest economics: Fundamental principles, cost-benefit analyses; estimation of demand and supply; analysis of trends in the national and international market and changes in production and consumption patterns; assessment and projection of market structures; role of private sector and co-operatives; role of corporate financing. Socio-economic analysis of forest productivity and attitudes; valuation of forest goods and service.

Legislation – History of forest development; Indian Forest Policy of 1894, 1952 and 1990. National Forest Policy, 1988 of People’s involvement, Joint Forest Management, Involvement of women; Forestry policies and issues related to land use, timber and non-timber products, sustainable forest management; industrialisation policies; institutional and structural changes. Decentralization and Forestry Public Administration. Forest laws, necessity; general principles, Indian Forest Act 1927; Forest Conservation Act, 1980; Wildlife Protection Act 1972 and their amendments; Application of Indian Penal Code to Forestry. Scope and objectives of Forest Inventory.


Forestry Optional Classroom

Rs. 1000 Discount on Forestry Optional: Use Coupon code ‘FORESTRY1000’

Geology Optional Classroom

Geology + Forestry Optional