7.1   Human Values

These values are at the core of being human and eternally apply to all human beings.

 (1) Truth: It is absolute. It does not depend upon the will or wish of the individual.

“Even if you are a minority of one, truth is truth”. Gandhi Ji.

(2) Love: Love is unselfish care and concern for the well-being of others. It is related to human soul & psyche. It includes altruism, understanding and forgiveness.

(3) Peace: It is a harmony and a balanced but nevertheless dynamic mental condition.

It is product of all positive values working together effectively. It is a condition of absence of violence, war, crimes or disturbances.

(4) Responsibility

  • Action in accordance with the established laws- legislative laws, natural justice etc.
  • Similar to Eastern concept of
  • It is not accountability. Accountability is towards an authority, but responsibility is doing an act properly.

(5) Justice

  • Based on the maxim of equilibrium between equality and equity.
  • Governed by legal laws and legislations, principle of natural justice.
  • Highest human value according to European traditions. E.g. concept of Justice in classical Greek philosophy like Socrates and Plato.
  • The Geneva Convention, 1948 formalized the human rights of classical Greek idea.
  • Enshrined in the deep Vedic sense of Ahmisa.


7.2 Leaders, Administrator and Reformers


  • Those who formulates policies and initiate new
  • His authority is inherent in his position.
  • He is either appointed or elected or emerge from within a group.
  • He envisages missions, develops strategy, and inspires people and change culture.
  • Leadership: Exercise of high level conceptual skills and decisiveness.


  • Those who executes policies and implements decisions, utilizing the existence structure. (even if it is flawed)
  • The ability to influence is based on the formal authority inherent in their position.
  • A leader, and not an administrator, has the potential to change the country.
  • They are appointed (not elected generally).


  • Those who works to improve the policies and the existing structure.
  • He is neither appointed nor elected, this virtue emerges from within.
  • Types: Social reformers, Political reformers, Religious reformers etc.

Administration vs. Management

  • Administration: Process of working to accomplish the agreed goals efficiently. The main work is to implement decisions.
  • Manager = Leader + Administrator
  • Their decisions are seen the decisions of the organization.
  • They also have to convince employees.
  • Emotional intelligence is must.
  • Planning, co-ordination, direction to execution, evaluation etc.

7.3 Human values: Lessons

Human Values: Lesson from the lives of great leaders.

Mahatma Gandhi, Abraham Lincoln, Mother Teresa, Sardar Patel.

Main Lesson: The lessons are based on people needs, works for values and morality. For example;

  • Justice
  • Selflessness
  • Peace loving.
  • Respect for humanity and dignity.
  • Love and care.
  • Benevolence & Compassion.

Human Values: Lessons from the lives of great administrators

Verghese Kurian, M.S. Swaminathan, E. Sreedharan, C.D. Deshmukh, V.P. Menon, Sardar Patel.

Main Lessons: The lessons are based on ethics in public administration. For example;

  • Honesty and Integrity.
  • Discipline
  • Non-discrimination, equality.
  • Public welfare.
  • Accountability- ethical & professional.
  • Responsibility
  • Lawfulness
  • Loyalty
  • Courage
  • Solidarity and respect.

Human Values- Lessons from the lives of great reformers

Swami Vivekananda, Raja Rammohan Roy, Gandhi Ji.

Main Lesson: The lessons are based on compassion, equality and inclusion. For example;

  • Respect for humanity & dignity.
  • Benevolence, Love, care & compassion.
  • Inquiry for seeking the cause-effect relationship.
  • Contentment
  • Social equality