Geography Optional Syllabus For UPSC

The disciplinary subject of UPSC has 48 subjects, one of which is Geography. Discretionary prospectus for the subject has a large cover with general study. These are likely the main optional subjects in the Mains test. Geography optional syllabus for UPSC- The topics recalled for this topic are identified by physical and human geology, financial topography and the topography of India.

Geography optional syllabus for UPSC

In UPSC, comers choosing geography as a discretionary subject regularly search for schedules. Regardless of the tremendous number of subjects to be related with the outline, it is not difficult to set up the subject because of the wide reach of the examination material and its notoriety in the Mains test. Also, a gigantic piece of the geology plan may be covered while being prepared for general examinations.

In this article, we provide you the items for Geography Discretionary UPSC Schedule followed by Geography optional syllabus for UPSC PDF.

Redefined Syllabus

The original UPSC syllabus for Geography is haphazard. We have redefined the syllabus into 15 Units. Scroll down for the Original UPSC syllabus for Geography is .

Geography optional syllabus for UPSC

UNIT 1: GEOMORPHOLOGY

P1, Geomorph: Origin and evolution of earth’s crust; P1, Geomorph: Physical condition of earth’s interior; P1, Geomorph: Fundamentals of geomagnetism; P1, Geomorph: Continental drift, P1, Geomorph: Plate tectonics; P1, Geomorph: Geosynclines; P1, Geomorph: Recent views on mountain building; P1, Geomorph: Vulcanicity; P1, Geomorph: Isostasy; P1, Geomorph: Endogenetic and exogenetic forces; P1, Geomorph:

Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development; P1, Geomorph: Factors controlling landform development; P1, Geomorph: Slope development; P1, Geomorph: Channel morphology; P1, Geomorph: Denudation chronology; P1, Geomorph: Erosion surfaces; P1, Geomorph: Applied Geomorphology: Geohydrology, Economic geology, Environment; P2, Phy. Sett: Structure; P2, Phy. Sett.: Relief; P2, Phy. Sett.: Physiographic regions; P2, Phy. Sett: Drainage system

UNIT 2: CLIMATOLOGY

P1, Climato: Temperature; P1, Climato: Pressure belts of the world; P1, Climato: Heat budget of the earth; P1, Climato: Atmospheric circulation; P1, Climato:  Planetary winds; P1, Climato: Local winds; P1, Climato: Atmospheric stability and instability; P1, Climato: Monsoons, P2, Phy. Sett.: Mechanism of Indian monsoons; P1, Climato: Jet streams; P1, Climato: Air masses; P1, Climato: Fronto genesis; P1, Climato: Temperate cyclones,

P1, Climato: Tropical cyclones, P2, Phy. Sett.: Tropical cyclones; P1, Climato: Weather and Climate; P1, Climato: Hydrological cycle; P1, Climato: Types of precipitation; P1, Climato: Distribution of precipitation; P2, Phy. Sett.: Indian rainfall patterns, P2, Phy. Sett.: Western disturbances; P1, Climato: Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s, Trewartha’s classification of world climates; P2, Phy. Sett.: Climatic regions; P1, Climato: Applied climatology, P1, Climato: Urban climate

UNIT 3: OCEANOGRAPHY

BOTTOM TOPOGRAPHY: P1, Oceano: Bottom topography of the Atlantic Ocean; P1, Oceano: Bottom topography of the Indian Ocean; P1, Oceano: Bottom topography of the Pacific Ocean.

P1, Oceano: Temperature of the oceans; P1, Oceano: Salinity of the oceans; P1, Oceano: Heat budget; P1, Oceano: Salt budget; P1, Oceano: Ocean deposits; P1, Oceano: Marine pollution; P1, Oceano: Waves; P1, Oceano: Currents; P1, Oceano: Tides; P1, Oceano: Sea level changes; P1, Oceano: Coral reefs; P1, Oceano: Coral bleaching

UNIT 4: ENVIRONMENTAL

BIOGEOGRAPHY: SOIL: P1, Biogeo: Genesis of soils; P1, Biogeo: Classification soils, P2, Phy. Sett.: Soil types; P1,Biogeo: Distribution of soils, P2, Phy. Sett.: Soil distributions; P1, Biogeo: Soil profile; P1, Biogeo: Soil erosion, P2, Contemp Iss: Soil erosion; P1, Biogeo: Soil degradation; P1, Biogeo: Soil conservation

BIOGEOGRAPHY: PLANT AND ANIMALS: P1, Biogeo: Factors influencing world distribution of animals; P1, Biogeo: Factors influencing world distribution of plants; P1, Biogeo: Major gene pool centres; P1, Envt. Geo.: Biodiversity

ENVIRONMENT: P1, Envt. Geo.: Principle of ecology; P1, Envt. Geo.: Ecosystem, their management and conservation; P1, Biogeo: Problems of deforestation, P2, Contemp Iss: Deforestation; P1, Biogeo: Factors influencing world distribution of plants; P1, Biogeo: Factors influencing world distribution of animals.

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS AND DEGRAFATION: P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental hazards and remedial measures; P2, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides; P1, Geomorph: Earthquakes, P2, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: earthquakes; P1, Geomorph: Tsunamis, P2, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: Tsunamis; P2, Physical Setting: Floods, P2,

Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: floods; P2, Phy. Sett.: Droughts, P2, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: droughts; P2, Contemp Iss: Desertification; P2, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: epidemics; P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental degradation, P2, Contemp Iss: Environmental degradation; P2, Contemp Iss: Issues relating to environmental pollution; P1, Climato: Global climatic change, P1, Climato: Role and response of man in climatic changes; P1, Envt. Geo.: Influence of man on ecology and environment; P1, Envt. Geo.: Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances.

ENVIRONMENT AND PLANNING: P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental management, P2, Contemp Iss: Principles of environmental management; P2, Contemp Iss: Principles of environmental impact assessment; P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental conservation; P1, Biogeo: Wild life, P2, Resources: Wild life resources,

P2, Resources: Conservation of Wild life resources; P1, Envt. Geo.: Sustainable development, P2, Contemp Iss: Concept of sustainable growth and development; P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental policy; P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental education; P2, Contemp Iss: Environmental awareness; P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental legislation

UNIT 5: PERSPECTIVES IN HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

Perspectives: Paradigms; P1, Perspectives in HG: Areal differentiation; P1, Perspectives in HG: Regional synthesis; P1, Perspectives in HG: Dichotomy; P1, Perspectives in HG: Dualism; P1, Perspectives in HG: Environmentalism; P1, Envt Geo: Human ecological adaptations.

QUANTIFICATION IN GEOGRAPHY: Models; P1, MT&L in HG: Systems analysis in Human geography; Gravity Model; Diffusion of innovation; Positivism;  P1, Perspectives in HG: Locational analysis; P1, Perspectives in HG: Quantitative revolution.

CRITICAL REVOLUTION: P1, Perspectives in HG: Radical approach; P1, Perspectives in HG: Behavioural approach; P1, Perspectives in HG: Human approach; P1, Perspectives in HG: Welfare approach

UNIT 6: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY

P2, Cultural Sett: Historical Perspective of Indian Society; P2, Cultural Sett: Racial diversities; P2, Cultural Sett: Ethnic diversities; P1, Perspectives in HG: Languages; P2, Cultural Sett: Linguistic diversities; P1, Perspectives in HG: Secularisation; P1, Perspectives in HG: Religions; P2, Cultural Sett: Religious minorities;

 P2, Cultural Sett: Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; P2, Regional D&P: Tribal area development; P1, Perspectives in HG: Cultural regions of the world; P2, Cultural Sett: Cultural regions; P1, Population and SG: Social well-being; P1, Population and SG: Quality of life; P1, Population and SG: Population as social capital; P2, Cultural Sett: Health indicators; P1, Perspectives in HG: Human development index.

UNIT 7: POPULATION GEOGRAPHY

P1, Population and SG: Population theories; P1, MT&L in HG: Malthusian theory, Marxian theory, Demographic transition model; P1, Population and SG: Concepts of over-under-and optimum population; P1, Population and SG: Growth of world population; P2, Cultural Sett: Growth of population; P1, Population and SG: Distribution of world population; P2, Cultural Sett: Distribution of population; P2, Cultural Sett: Density of population.

DEMOGRAPHIC ATTRIBUTES: P1, Population and SG: Demographic attributes; P2, Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: sex-ratio; P2, Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: age structure; P2, Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: literacy rate; P2, Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: work-force, dependency ratio; P2, Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: longevity.

MIGRATION: P2, Cultural Sett: Migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international); P1, Population and SG: Causes of migration; P1, Population and SG: Consequences of migration; P2, Cultural Sett: Associated problems of migration.

POPULATION PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS: P1, Economic Geo: Food and nutrition problems; P1, Economic Geo: Food security, P2, Contemp Iss: Population explosion and Food security; P1, Economic Geo: Famine: causes, effects and remedies; P1, Population and SG: World population problems, P2, Cultural Sett: Population problems; P1, Population and SG: World population policies, P2, Cultural Sett: Population policies.

UNIT 8: SETTLEMENT GEOGRAPHY

RURAL SETTLEMENT: P1, Population and SG: Types of rural settlements, P2, Settlements: Type of rural settlements; P1, Population and SG: Patterns of rural settlements, P2, Settlements: Patterns of rural settlements; P2, Settlements: Morphology of rural settlements; P1, Population and SG: Environmental issues in rural settlements.

URBAN SETTLEMENT: P2, Settlements: Urban developments; P1, MT&L in HG: Central Place theory of Christaller, P1, MT&L in HG: Central Place theory of Losch; P1, Population and SG: Urban morphology, P2, Settlements: Morphology of Indian cities; P1, Population and SG: Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city;

 P1, Population and SG: Urban morphology: Rank-size rule; P1, Population and SG: Rural – urban fringe; P1, Population and SG: Satellite towns; P2, Settlements: Conurbations; P2, Settlements: Urban sprawl; P1, Population and SG: Hierarchy of urban settlements; P1, Popul.& SG: Functional classification of towns, P2, Settlements: Functional classification of Indian cities.

TOWN PLANNING: P2, Settlements: Town planning, P1, Population & SG: Sustainable development of cities; P1, Population and SG: Problems and remedies of urbanization, P2,  Settlements: Problems of urbanization and remedies; P2, Settlements: Slums and associated problems

UNIT 9: REGIONAL PLANNING

P1, Regional Planning: Concept of a region; P1, Regional Planning: Types of regions; P1, Regional Planning: Methods of regionalisation, P1, Population and SG: Sphere of urban influence, P2, Settlements: Metropolitan regions; P1, Regional Planning: Growth centres and growth poles, P1, MT&L in HG: Perroux and Boudeville;

P1, MT&L in HG: Rostov’s model of stages of growth; P1, Regional Planning: Regional imbalances, P2, Contemp Iss: Regional disparities in economic development; P1, Regional Planning: Regional development strategies; P1, Regional Pl: Planning for sustainable development;

P1, Regional Pl: Environmental issues in regional planning; P2, Regional D&P: Experience of regional planning in India; P2, Regional D&P: Five Year Plans; P2, Regional D&P: Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; P2, Regional D&P: Multi-level planning; P2, Regional D&P: Integrated rural development programmes; P2, Regional D&P: Planning for backward areas; P2, Regional D&P: Planning for desert areas; P2, Regional D&P: Planning for drought prone areas; 

P2, Regional D&P: Planning for hill areas; P2, Regional D&P: Regional planning and development of island territories; P2, Regional D&P: Command area development; P2, Physical Setting: Watersheds, P2, Regional D&P: Watershed management

UNIT 10: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY INTRO AND TRANSPORT GEOGRAPHY

P1, Eco. Geo.: World economic development: measurement; P1, Eco. Geo.: World economic development: problems; P1, Eco. Geo.: The limits to growth

UNIT 10.1. TRANSPORT GEOGRAPHY

TRANSPORT: P2, Transport, C&T: Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; P2, Transport, C&T: Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; P2, Transport, C&T: Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society.

WORLD TRADE: P1, Eco. Geo.: Patterns of world trade; P2, Transport, C&T: Trade balance; P2, Transport, C&T: Trade Policy; P2, Contemp Iss: Globalisation and Indian economy.

Geography optional syllabus for UPSC

UNIT 11: RESOURCE GEOGRAPHY

P1, Eco. Geo.: World resources and their distribution

ENERGY RESOURCES: P2, Resources: Energy resources.

MINERAL RESOURCES: P2, Resources: Mineral resources

WATER RESOURCES: P2, Resources: Surface and ground water resources

LAND RESOURCES: P2, Resources: Land resources; P2, Contemp Iss: Changes in patterns of land use

BIOTIC RESOURCES: P2, Resources: Biotic resources; P2, Phy. Sett.: Natural vegetation; P2, Resources: Forest resources; P1, Biogeo: Problems of deforestation, P2, Contemp Iss: Deforestation; P1, Biogeo: (Forest) conservation measures, P2, Resources: Conservation of Forest resources

MARINE RESOURCES: P2, Resources: Marine resources; P1, Oceano: Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources.

RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: P1, Eco. Geo.: Energy crisis, P2, Resources: Energy crisis.

UNIT 12: INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY

P1, Eco. Geo.: World industries: locational patterns; P1, MT&L in HG: Weber’s model of industrial location; P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of cotton industries; P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of jute industries; P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of textile industries; P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of iron and steel industries; P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of aluminium industries; P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of fertilizer industries; P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of paper industries; P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of chemical industries;

 P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of pharmaceutical industries; P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of Automobile industries; P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of cottage industries; P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of agro-based industries; P2, Industry: Evolution of industries; P2, Industry: Industrial complexes; P2, Industry: Industrial regionalisation; P2, Industry: New industrial policies; P2, Industry: Multinationals, P2, Industry: Liberalization; P1, Eco. Geo.: World industries: problems; P2, Industry: Tourism including eco–tourism; P2, Industry: Industrial houses; P2, Industry: Public sector undertakings; P2, Industry: Special Economic Zones; P2, Transport, C&T: Export processing zones; P2, Contemp Iss: Problems of industrial unrest.

UNIT 13: AGRICULTURE GEOGRAPHY || Geography optional syllabus for UPSC

AGRICULTURAL REGIONS: P2, Agriculture: Agricultural regionalisation; P1, Eco. Geo.: World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; P2, Agriculture: Significance of dry farming; P2, Agriculture: Agro-climatic zones; P2, Agriculture: Agro- ecological regions.

DETERMINANTS OF AGRICULTURE: P1, MT&L in HG: Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; P1, Eco. Geo.: Agricultural inputs; P2, Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; P2, Agriculture: Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms.

CONCEPTS IN AGRICULTURE: P2, Agriculture: Cropping pattern; P1, Eco. Geo.: Agricultural productivity, P2, Agriculture: Agricultural productivity; P2, Agriculture: Agricultural intensity; P2, Agriculture: Crop combination; P2, Agriculture: Land capability.

ALLIED AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES: P2, Agriculture: Livestock resources; P2, Agriculture: White revolution; P2, Agriculture: Aqua culture; P2, Agriculture: Sericulture; P2, Agriculture: Apiculture; P2, Agriculture: Poultry.

SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE: P2, Agriculture: Green revolution and its socioeconomic and ecological implications; P1, Biogeo: Social forestry, P2, Agriculture: Social forestry, P1, Biogeo: Agro-forestry, P2, Agriculture: Agro forestry; P2,  Contemp Iss: Problems of agrarian unrest.

UNIT 14: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY || Geography optional syllabus for UPSC

P1, MT&L in HG: Heartland theory, P1, MT&L in HG: Rimland theory; P1, MT&L in HG: Laws of international boundaries and frontiers; P1, Oceano: Law of the sea; P2, Pol. Asp.: International boundary of India and related issues; P2, Phy. Sett.: Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; P2, Pol. Asp.: India’s role in world affairs;

 P2, Pol. Asp.: Geopolitics of South Asia, P2, Transport, C&T: Indian space programme; P2, Pol. Asp.: Geopolitics of Indian Ocean realm; P2, Pol. Asp.: Cross border terrorism; P2, Pol. Asp.: Geographical basis of Indian federalism; P2, Pol. Asp.: State reorganisation; P2, Pol. Asp.: Emergence of new states; P2, Pol. Asp.: Regional consciousness; P2, Pol. Asp.: Inter-state issues, P2, Contemp Iss: Linkage of rivers

UNIT 15: MAPS || Geography optional syllabus for UPSC



Geography optional syllabus for UPSC: (UPSC original syllabus for Geography)

PAPER 1: PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY

  1. Geomorphology:Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development ; Applied Geomorphology : Geohydrology, economic geology and environment.
  1. Climatology:Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Applied climatology and Urban climate.
  1. Oceanography:Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching; sealevel changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.
  1. Biogeography:Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
  1. Environmental Geography:Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.
  1. Perspectives in Human Geography:Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.
  1. Economic Geography:World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: locational patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.
  1. Population and Settlement Geography:Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural – urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.
  1. Regional Planning:Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; regional development strategies; environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
  1. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography:Systems analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Rostov’s model of stages of growth. Heartland and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.

PAPER 2: GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA

Geography optional syllabus for UPSC

NOTE: Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.

  1. Physical Setting:Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.
  1. Resources:Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.
  1. Agriculture:Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and socialforestry; Green revolution and its socioeconomic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; aqua – culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agricultural regionalisation; agro-climatic zones; agro- ecological regions.
  1. Industry:Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policies; Multinationals and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco -tourism.
  1. Transport, Communication and Trade:Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.
  1. Cultural Setting:Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.
  1. Settlements:Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems of urbanization and remedies.
  1. Regional Development and Planning:Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought prone, hill, tribal area development; multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.
  1. Political Aspects:Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter state issues; international boundary of India and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
  1. Contemporary Issues:Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.

Geography optional syllabus for UPSC PDF:- click here

Geography optional syllabus for UPSC:- Topography discretionary ought to be arranged completely on the off chance that one has picked it for the UPSC Mains by contemplating the earlier years’ papers and furthermore going through important books on Geography for UPSC.

Planning checks should be continuously included in the plan as this test is a static piece of paper structure.

Geography optional syllabus for UPSC. Ex-mayors and IAS dependents can coordinate their ground work for geography discretion with grassroots discretion for general studies to ensure positive results in elections.