“There arose a serious challenge to the Democratic State System between the two World Wars.” Evaluate the statement. UPSC GS Paper 1 2021, 15 Marks

Q13. “दोनों विश्व युद्धों के बीच लोकतंत्रीय राज्य प्रणाली के लिए एक गंभीर चुनौती उत्पन्न हुई ।” इस कथन का मूल्यांकन कीजिए । (250 शब्दों में उत्तर दीजिए)

Q13. ” There arose a serious challenge to the Democratic State System between the two World Wars.” Evaluate the statement. (250 words) 15 Marks


During the 20th century the number of countries possessing the basic political institutions of representative democracy increased significantly. At the beginning of the 21st century, independent observers agreed that more than one-third of the world’s nominally independent countries possessed democratic institutions comparable to those of the English-speaking countries and the older democracies of continental Europe. In an additional one-sixth of the world’s countries, these institutions, though somewhat defective, nevertheless provided historically high levels of democratic government.

Failure of non democratic system:

A significant part of the explanation is that all the main alternatives to democracy—whether of ancient or of modern origins—suffered political, economic, diplomatic, and military failures that greatly lessened their appeal. With the victory of the Allies in World War I, the ancient systems of monarchy, aristocracy, and oligarchy ceased to be legitimate. Following the military defeat of Italy and Germany in World War II, the newer alternative of fascism was likewise discredited, as was Soviet- style communism after the economic and political collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990–91. Similar failures contributed to the gradual disappearance of military dictatorships in Latin America in the 1980s and ’90s.

Challenges to the Democratic State System between the two world wars:

  • Monarchy: monarchs were not willing to gave up their hereditary rights even at tha cost of ears.
  • Lack of awareness about democratic system as People were not self confident about the success of democratic system
  • Despotism were the biggest threat as power may be occupied by elites and again poor would be exploited
  • Failure of economic sysetm and markets were deteriorated and self sufficiency disappeared traditional industries and their production was disturbed.
  • some of the conditions that were essential to the successful functioning of market economies also contributed to the development of democracy like ready access to reliable information, relatively high levels of education, ease of personal movement, and the rule of law.
  • As market economies expanded and as middle classes grew larger and more influential, popular support for such conditions increased, often accompanied by demands for further democratization.
  • Colonialism by European countries allies forces were not ready to accept rule by people.
  • Imperialism by allies forces because they want the world to became feed economy for their industrious revolution like they made various asian countries including india indonesia china etc.
  • Countries in the world were not united but disintegrated on religious line like jewism islam and Christianity and they willing to be organised on religious line which were not possible.
  • Democratic practices like fair voting, fundamental rights, judiciary, legislature were written constitution were not in practice.
  • People were not confident that democratic systems ensure development an well being of entire society in a region.

As a conclusion it can be stated that challenges were many because Universal constitutional values were not established till half of 20 th century but around the second world war democratic institution were proved that they can ensure peace and prosperity in the world if nurtured by people of the region through their popular leaders.

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