Discuss the main objectives of Population Education and point out the measures to achieve them in India in detail. UPSC GS Paper 1 2021, 15 Marks

Q18. जनसंख्या शिक्षा के प्रमुख उद्देश्यों की विवेचना करते हुए भारत में इन्हें प्राप्त करने के उपायों पर विस्तृत प्रकाश डालिए । (250 शब्दों में उत्तर दीजिए)

Q18. Discuss the main objectives of Population Education and point out the measures to achieve them in India in detail. (250 words) 15 Marks


One of the most formidable problems that India faces is the rapidly increasing population, which negates any attempt at development. There is a pressing need to disseminate factual information about population dynamics so that the next generation understands the nature and magnitude of the burden imposed by rapid population growth.

India’s population is growing at a rate of 2.5 percent per year. India is located next to China and has a population that is slightly less than three times that of the United States, twenty-one times that of Canada, and more than six times that of Japan. With the current rate of growth, the country’s population could reach the incredible figure of one billion before the end of the century.

What is Population Education?

According to UNESCO, “Population Education is an educational programme that provides for the study of the population situation of the family, the community, the nation, and the world, with the goal of developing in students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior toward that situation.”

Why Population Education is the need of an hour in India?

  • Hunger Issue: India ranked 101st out of 116 Nations in the recently published Global Hunger Index. Despite the green revolution’s spectacular success, the food crisis persists due to a massive increase in population. The nutritional value of the food consumed is also low. The increase in population is cancelling out scientific and technological advancements.
  • Over the last five decades, there has been remarkable progress in both the industrial and agricultural sectors. However, their per-capita consumption has not increased. The increased facilities in various sectors of life are falling short of meeting the needs of the growing population.
  • Immense burden on environment: An increasing number of people cannot survive just on agriculture. They move to cities, big cities, and industrial districts. This condition is causing issues such as water and air pollution, transportation, a lack of housing, overcrowding in schools, and the emergence of slums. All efforts to prepare for progress are being thwarted by the country’s growing population.
  • Education and Healthcare issues: India growing population is adversely affecting the human resources indicators like education and healthcare. During the covid 19 pandemic it was visible that, India’s fragile healthcare is not component to accommodate India’s growing population. Education and healthcare system are bedrock of any Nation’s economic and social development. Population control measures are imperative to provide quality education and healthcare facilities.

What needs to be done?

  • Minimum age of Marriage: Because fertility is affected by the age of marriage. As a result, the marriage age should be raised. The minimum age for marriage in India is 21 years for men and 18 years for women, as mandated by law. This rule should be strictly enforced, and people should be made aware of it through public awareness.
  • Women Empowerment: Women continue to face discrimination. They are imprisoned within the four walls of the house. They are still limited to childrearing and childbearing. As a result, women should be offered opportunities for social and economic development. They should be provided with free schooling.
  • Promoting Family Planning: People can control the birth rate by taking preventive measures. This strategy is widely utilized; its success is dependent on the availability of low-cost contraceptive devices for birth control.
  • The government can provide several forms of incentives to people in order to encourage them to use birth control methods. Monetary incentives and other benefits, such as paid leave and promotion, can be offered to the working class that adheres to modest family standards.
  • Communication media such as television, radio, and newspapers are effective means of disseminating the benefits of planned families to the uneducated and illiterate, particularly in rural and disadvantaged sections of the country.

Population policy should touch the lives of ordinary people and involve a broader range of stakeholders, including legislators, bureaucrats, the media, professionals, teachers, and the general public.

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