UPSC Geology Optional 2021 Paper 1 and Paper 2 Analysis and Approach

Geology Optional 2021 Paper 1 and Paper 2 Analysis UPSC

Geology Optional 2021 Paper: There are two exams by UPSC Mains for Geology Optional. This article discusses the paper of UPSC Civil Services Exam for Geology. View the UPSC IFS Geology Optional Paper 2021 Paper and Analysis here after the exam.

UPSC Geology Optional 2021 Paper 1

Geology Optional 2021 Paper 1 approach and solution for ‘How to Prepare for Geography Optional’ lies in Previous Year Paper.

 

 

Geology Optional CSE 2021 Paper I SECTION A

Q1. (a) Explain what is ring of fire? How many plates and geographic areas are associated with ring of fire? (2021/10 marks)

Analysis and Approach

Q 1 a UPSC Geology Optional 2021 Paper 1

Q1. (b) What is Geographic Information System (GIS)? Explain the concepts, components and functions of GIS. (2021/10 marks)

Analysis and Approach

Q 1 b UPSC Geology Optional 2021 Paper 1

Q1. (c) Discuss stereoscopy and its advantages in aerial photo interpretation. Add a note on elements of photo interpretation. (2021/10 marks)

Analysis and Approach

Q 1 c 1 UPSC Geology Optional 2021 Paper 1

Q1. (d) What is stereographic projection in structural geology? Discuss its types, nomenclature and different types of geological plotting technique in a stereonet. (2021/10 marks)

Analysis and Approach

Q 1 d UPSC Geology Optional 2021 Paper 1

Q1. (e) Discuss stress and strain ellipsoids using neat diagrams. (2021/10 marks)

Analysis and Approach

Q 1 e UPSC Geology Optional 2021 Paper 1

Q2. (a) What are lithospheric plates? Discuss the theory of plate tectonics. Which plates were involved when a major earthquake caused tsunami in Indian Ocean in 2004?  (2021/20 marks)

Analysis and Approach

Q 2 a 1 UPSC Geology Optional 2021 Paper 1

Q2. (b) Discuss the geomorphic processes. Cite any four aggradational and four degradational landforms associated with fluvial processes. (2021/15 marks)

Analysis and Approach

  • A repeated question from previous year. Check out the UPSC Geology Optional Previous Year Papers Topic Wise 1979-2021
  • UPSC has asked direct question from the Syllabus heading. There are ten fundamental concepts or theories in Geomorphology by WD Thornbury in this topic. UPSC is asking these theories regularly. “Geomorphic processes leave their distinctive imprint upon landforms, and each geomorphic process develops its own characteristic assemblage of landforms” is one of them.
  • There are six main types of geomorphic processes: Fluvial, wind or aeolian, karst, marine or coastal, glacial and periglacial. UPSC is asking from these topics regularly.
  • Direct Hit from Synopsis IAS Geology Optional course for UPSC which is based on Syllabus + Previous Year Questions.

Q 2 b 1 UPSC Geology Optional 2021 Paper 1

Click here to watch lecture by Synopsis IAS

 

Q2. (c) What does attitude of a bed mean? Define strike, dip direction and dip amount of a bed and explain how these are represented on a map for vertical, horizontal and inclined strata. (2021/15 marks)

Analysis and Approach

Q 2 c UPSC Geology Optional 2021 Paper 1

Q3. (a) What are the fundamental concepts used in Geomorphological studies? Explain the concept little of the earth’s topography is older than Tertiary and most of it no older than Pleistocene? (2021/20 marks)

Analysis and Approach

  • A repeated question from previous year. Check out the UPSC Geology Optional Previous Year Papers Topic Wise 1979-2021
  • UPSC has asked direct question from the Syllabus heading. There are ten fundamental concepts or theories in Geomorphology by WD Thornbury in this topic. UPSC is asking these theories regularly. “Little of the earth’s topography is older than Tertiary and most of it no older than Pleistocene” is one of them. 
  • There are six main types of geomorphic processes: Fluvial, wind or aeolian, karst, marine or coastal, glacial and periglacial. UPSC is asking from these topics regularly.
  • Direct Hit from Synopsis IAS Geology Optional course for UPSC which is based on Syllabus + Previous Year Questions.

Q 3 a UPSC Geology Optional 2021 Paper 1

Q3. (b) What is isostacy and what are the different theories put forward to explain this concept? (2021/15 marks)

Q3. (c) What is a fold domain? Discuss any eight types of folds depending on the closure of fold domain. (2021/15 marks)

Q4. (a) What are hanging wall and footwall of a fault? Describe the different classes of faults based on relative movement of walls. (2021/20 marks)

Q4. (b) (i) What are atmospheric windows in Remote sensing? (2021/5 marks)

Q4. (b) (ii) What are spectral reflectance curves? Explain how clear water, dry soil and healthy vegetation can be demarcated using spectral reflectance curves with neat sketches. (2021/10 marks)

Q4. (c) Define drainage pattern, Drainage texture and Drainage anomaly. Also give their general classification. Discuss the significance of those in geological interpretation of aerial photos and satellite images. (2021/15 marks)

Geology Optional CSE 2021 Paper I SECTION B

Q5. (a) What are mega fossils? Give names of any three age-diagnostic mega fossils indicating their significance in Indian stratigraphy. (2021/10 marks)

Q5. (b) What is paleogeography? Discuss various tools employed in paleogeographic reconstruction. (2021/10 marks)

Q5. (c) Define lithostratigraphy. Enlist diagnostic properties of lithostratigraphic units giving example from Indian stratigraphy. (2021/10 marks)

Q5. (d) Discuss characteristics of confined and unconfined aquifers. (2021/10 marks)

Q5. (e) Discuss briefly characteristics of earthquake resistant structures. (2021/10 marks)

Q6. (a) Discuss the evolutionary trends in the lineage of equidae and give any two examples of their Indian occurrences. (2021/20 marks)

Q6. (b) Describe Cenozoic stratigraphy of Kuchh basin. Comment on its fossil content and depositional environment. (2021/15 marks)

Q6. (c) Discuss briefly as to why artificial recharge is essentially required in confined aquifers. Explain with suitable diagrams a typical injection well for roof-top harvesting of water. (2021/15 marks)

Q7. (a) Describe stratigraphy and depositional environment of Gondwana Supergroup and discuss why only certain intervals of Gondwana succession are rich in coal seam? (2021/20 marks)

Q7. (b) What are trace fossils? Describe the modes of preservation of trace fossils and comment on their geological significance. (2021/15 marks)

Q7. (c) Describe various types of Dam with suitable sketches. Comment on the geological conditions required for site selection for each type of Dam. (2021/15 marks)

Q8. (a) Give a brief account of sources of groundwater pollution in India and discuss the management of groundwater resources. (2021/20 marks)

Q8. (b) What are microfossils? Discuss the application of microfossils in petroleum exploration. (2021/15 marks)

Q8. (c) What are mass extinctions? Comment on the various hypothesis proposed for the causes of Permian-Triassic mass extinction. (2021/15 marks)

 

 

Geology Optional CSE 2021 Paper 2 SECTION A

Q1. (a) How does one designate mirror plane, rotational axes of symmetry and centre of symmetry in Hermann-Mauguin notation? A crystal has one 4-fold axis, four 2 -fold axes, five mirror planes and centre of symmetry. What will be its Hermann-Mauguin notation? Show on a stereographic projection diagram the symmetry elements of the above crystal and plot the faces of the form (hkl). (2021/10 marks)

Q1. (b) Discuss with the help of a suitable diagram the crystallization of a melt having composition Diopside-70 and Anorthite-30 under 1 atmospheric pressure. After complete crystallization, what would be the texture of the rock? (2021/10 marks)

Q1. (c) Describe ‘continuous’ and ‘discontinuous’ reaction series of minerals proposed by Bowen. Why is one series called as ‘continuous’ and the other as ‘discontinuous’? (2021/10 marks)

Q1. (d) Define ‘prograde’ and ‘retrograde’ metamorphism with suitable examples. Discuss the process of metasomatism. (2021/10 marks)

Q1. (e) Give a brief account of Folk’s classification of limestones. (2021/10 marks)

Q2. (a) Give the classification scheme of silicate minerals on the basis of atomic structure, Si : O ratio and number of shared oxygens. Give suitable examples of each class. (2021/20 marks)

Q2. (b) Define ‘birefringence’ and ‘extinction angle’ in minerals. How does one proceed to measure extinction angle of a mineral under microscope? Substantiate your answer with suitable sketches. (2021/20 marks)

Q2. (c) Define ‘twin plane’, ‘twin axis’ and ‘composition plane’ in crystals. State different types of twinning observed in feldspars. (2021/10 marks)

Q3. (a) Discuss briefly the processes of magma generation in the Earth’s interior. How is grain size of an igneous rock related to the rate of cooling of magma? Discuss the role of fractional crystallization and assimilation in magmatic differentiation. (2021/20 marks)

Q3. (b) Describe with suitable sketches four different types of structures/textures found in metamorphic rocks and add brief notes on their origin. (2021/20 marks)

Q3. (c) Define ‘migmatite’. How does the process of migmatization help to understand the origin of granites? (2021/10 marks)

Q4. (a) What is provenance? How can we use clastic quartz, feldspars and lithic grains in provenance interpretation of sandstones? (2021/20 marks)

Q4. (b) Define a ‘sedimentary facies model’. Illustrate with neat sketches the sedimentary facies and association facies likely to develop in a meandering fluvial depositional environment. (2021/20 marks)

Q4. (c) Describe the genesis of any four sedimentary structures which have significance for palaeocurrent analysis. (2021/10 marks)

Geology Optional CSE 2021 Paper 2 SECTION B

Q5. (a) Lead (Pb) mineralization zone is drawn in the given diagram with nomenclature. The related data is also provided in the table. Calculate the average grade of lead (Pb ) in percentage. (2021/10 marks)

Q5. (b) Describe the geological nature of coal deposits of Jharia (Jharkhand) and comment on their economic potential. (2021/10 marks)

Q5. (c) What are geophysical methods of exploration? How is gravity method useful in mapping the metallic ores? (2021/10 marks)

Q5. (d) Define ‘trace element’. Discuss the possible ways that a trace element can enter into a mineral structure. (2021/10 marks)

Q5. (e) State the sea level changes in Late Pleistocene period with possible causes. Add a note on anthropogenic causes occurred in last two centuries. (2021/10 marks)

Q6. (a) Give the modern classification of mineral deposits and explain in brief the residual and mechanical concentration deposits with suitable examples. (2021/20 m)

Q6. (b) Stating the premise of National Mineral Policy, give the outline of strategic, critical and essential minerals citing Indian examples. (2021/20 marks)

Q6. (c). Give the mode of occurrence, distribution and uses of manganese deposits of India. (2021/10 marks)

Q7. (a) State the characteristic features of cosmic abundance of elements. What are the bases of estimation of cosmic abundance of elements? (2021/20 marks)

Q7. (b) Discuss briefly with examples about different types of chemical bonds observed in natural minerals. (2021/10 m)

Q7. (c) Describe briefly the geology, structure and mode of occurrence of hydrocarbons in western oil fields of India. (2021/20 marks)

Q8. (a) How is unscientific development of catchments situated in mountainous regions responsible for increased threat of floods in plains? (2021/10 marks)

Q8. (b) Describe various types of radioactive wastes. Write an account on various methods of their disposal. (2021/20 m)

Q8. (c) What is meant by waterlogging? Describe in detail the remedial measures of waterlogging and salinity. (21/20m)

 

 

 

Geology Optional 2021 Paper and Solution and Approach for Preparation