UPSC Geography Optional 2021 Papers | Analysis and Approach

Geography Optional 2021 Paper 1 and 2 UPSC

Geography Optional 2021 Paper 1 approach and solution for ‘How to Prepare for Geography Optional’ lies in Previous Year Paper.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution

1. (a) Describe the concept of ‘Altiplanation’. (2021/10 marks)

Approach

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 1a 1

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 1a 2

 

1. (b) What are the important factors responsible for airmass modifications? (2021/10 marks)

Approach

  • A Repeated Question.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 1b

 

1.(c) Discuss the hazards associated with rise of sea-surface temperature. (2021/10 marks)

Approach

  • Repeated Question.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

 

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 1d

1. (d) Gene pool centres are ‘Good Hope’ for biodiversity conservation. Elucidate. (2021/10 marks)

Approach

  • Directly asked from Syllabus Heading. An expected Question. UPSC is asking questions from the untouched area.
  • Can be solved from Synopsis IAS Notes.

 

1. (e) Describe how ecosystem services of Himalaya are essential for Highland-Lowland sustainability in Asia. (2021/10 marks)

Approach

  • Directly asked from Syllabus Heading. An expected Question. UPSC is asking questions from the untouched area.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.
  • Can be solved from Environmental Geography by Savindra Singh.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 1e

 

2. (a) The concept of Plate tectonics has been derived from the isostasy and continental drift theory. Elaborate citing suitable examples. (2021/20 marks)

Approach

  • A tough Question.
  • Repeated Question for continental drift theory.
  •  isostasy and continental drift theory. Direct Hit from Synopsis IAS.
  • Isostasy part can be solved even from Free Resources file (Geomorphology Model Answers by Krishna Sir, Page No 11) Screenshot Attached
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 2a

 

2. (b) Give a detailed account of bottom topography of the Pacific Ocean. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

  • A Repeated Question.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 2b

2. (c) Soil erosion and soil degradation are threat to food supply. Discuss. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

  • A Repeated Question.
  • UPSC has asked many dimensions of Soil erosion and soil degradation.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 2c

 

3. (a) Examine major influencing factors for varied patterns of precipitations on the continents. (2021/20 marks)

Approach

  • A Repeated Question.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 3a

3. (b) Maritime security is being neglected. Indicate the major challenges and suggest solutions in the context of Law of the Sea. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

  • A Repeated Topic.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 3b

3. (c) Explaining the concept of carbon neutrality, describe the measures taken by carbon positive and negative nations. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

  • A New Question.
  • UPSC has already asked ecosystem approach to environmental management. 
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 3c

 

4. (a) With suitable examples, elaborate human ecological adaptations. Explain its impacts on ecology and environment in various parts of the world. (2021/20 marks)

Approach

  • A Repeated Question.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 4a

4. (b) Stream basins and drainage divides are important components to delineate a watershed area. Explain. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

  • A Repeated Question.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 4b

 

4. (c) Indicating the causes of lightning, describe the threats associated with it. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

  • A Repeated theme. UPSC has asked about thunderstorm already.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 4c

5. (a) The interrelationships between social and spatial structure are complex. Explain in the context of socio-spatial dialectic. (2021/10 marks)

Approach

  • A New and applied Question.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 5a

5. (b) How is energy transition seen as an instrument for achieving zero carbon by 2050? (2021/10 marks)

Approach

  • A repeated theme. A New dimension is asked about non-conventional energy.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 5b

5. (c) Protected cultivation assists in healthier and a larger produce. Justify with examples. (2021/10 marks)

Approach

  • A repeated question. A New dimension is asked about agricultural inputs.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 5c

5. (d) Explain the processes of contagion and hierarchical diffusion in addressing regional imbalances. (2021/10 marks)

Approach

  • A repeated question.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 5d

5. (e) Examine the relevance of Central Place Theory of Christaller in the present context. (2021/10 marks)

Approach

  • A repeated question.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 5e

6. (a) Development-induced displacement poses serious challenges. Mention its causes, consequences and solutions. (2021/20 marks)

Approach

  • A repeated question.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 6a 1

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 6a 2

6. (b) Describe the role of accessibility and affordability in food security of developing world. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

  • A repeated question.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 6b

6. (c) The environmental issues are not adequately addressed in the regional planning. Comment. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

  • A repeated question.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution for Question no 6c

7. (a) Suggest criteria, indicators and techniques for delimitation of formal regions. (2021/20 marks)

Approach

  • A repeated question.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

7. (b) Boundaries are important in geopolitics. Explain. What issues develop from the inclusionary and exclusionary aspects of borders? (2021/15 marks)

Approach

  • A repeated theme. Issues of frontiers vs boundaries needed to be discusses.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

7. (c) Small number of mega cities are playing key role in organisation of global economics and culture. Explain. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

  • A repeated theme. UPSC is asking regularly from various aspects of small and mega cities and towns.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

 

8. (a) Why is radicalism seen as a major paradigm shift in geography? Explain its causes, approaches and criticism. (2021/20 marks)

Approach

  • A repeated question.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

 

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8.(b) Aging population has adverse social and economic consequences. Explain with examples. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

  • A repeated question.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

8.(c) Present a critical account of Alfred Weber Theory of industrial location. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

  • A repeated question.
  • Can be solved from Previous Year Paper and from Synopsis IAS Notes.

 

Geography Optional 2021 Paper and Solution and Approach for Preparation

 

 

Geography Optional 2021 Paper 2 SECTION A

1. (a) On the outline map of India provided to you, mark the location of all the following. Write in your QCA Booklet the significance of these locations whether physical/ commercial/ economic/ ecological/ environmental/ cultural, in not more than 30 words each:
(i) Ziro Valley, (ii) Khecheopalri Lake, (iii) Toranmal, (iv) Subarnarekha River, (v) Koderma, (vi) Sir Creek, (vii) Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary, (viii) Peechi Dam, (ix) Digha Beach, (x) Pamban Island. (2021/2×10=20 marks)

 

1. (b) Discuss the geo-political impact of bilateral relationship between India and Bhutan. (2021/10 marks)

Approach

 

1.(c) Discuss the economic significance of volcanic soils of India. (2021/10 marks)

Approach

 

1. (d) Give a reasoned account of difference between sugar industry of North and Peninsular India. (2021/10 marks)

Approach

 

2. (a) Landslide is a major problem in Himalayan region. Discuss its causes and mitigation measures. (2021/20 marks)

Approach

 

2. (b) Appraise why drought is one of the most common climatic extremes in India. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

 

2. (c) Discuss the ecological and economic challenges of river linking in India. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

 

3. (a) Discuss the importance of solar energy in future economic development of India. (2021/20 marks)

Approach

 

3. (b) Critically examine the importance of Smart Cities Programme for solving urban problems in India. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

 

3. (c) Examine the significance of ecotourism in relation to socio-economic development and biodiversity conservation in India. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

 

4. (a) Discuss the reserves, distribution and production of all varieties of coal in India. (2021/20 marks)

Approach

 

4. (b) Describe the salient features of east-flowing rivers of India. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

 

4. (c) Critically examine the problems of inter-State border disputes in India. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

 

 

 

Geography Optional 2021 Paper 2 SECTION B

5. (a) Discuss the salient features of Project Tiger in India. (2021/10 marks)

Approach

 

5. (b) Describe the problems of cloud burst in India giving suitable examples. (2021/10 marks)

Approach

 

5. (c) Discuss the role of watershed management for soil and water conservation in hilly regions of India. (2021/10 marks)

Approach

 

5. (d) Critically examine the relevance of Ravenstein’s law of population migration with reference to India. (2021/10 marks)

Approach

 

5. (e) Discuss Ashok Mitra’s classification method of Indian cities. (2021/10 marks)

Approach

 

6. (a) Explain the impact of tropical cyclones and western disturbances on the climate of India. (2021/20 marks)

Approach

 

 

6. (b) Examine the critical issues of groundwater resources in India. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

 

6. (c) Describe the structure and relief features of Deccan Plateau. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

 

7. (a) Critically examine how Panchayati Raj system is catalyst in decentralized planning in India. (2021/20 marks)

Approach

 

7. (b) Identify the major industrial corridors of India and discuss the characteristics of Bengaluru-Mumbai Corridor. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

 

7. (c) Assess the growth of multinational corporations in liberalized economic environment of India. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

 

8. (a) Examine how information and communication technology has boosted the development of certain regions of India. (2021/20 marks)

Approach

 

8.(b) Discuss the Command Area Development Programme and its impact on eliminating regional inequalities in India. (2021/15 marks)

Approach

 

8.(c) Critically assess the status of balance of trade in India and suggest some measures to combat the issues. (2021/15 marks)

Approach