SYLLABUS

Geography is one of the popular optional. There are a lot of books and coaching centres for geography. However, there is a dearth of quality material and quality test series, both offline (apart from Delhi) and online.

Synopsis IAS has simplified the Geography Optional syllabus.

We recommend a strategy based on the syllabus topics and previous year papers.

The UPSC syllabus itself is the basic beacon light for starting the preparation. However, we have re-organised the syllabus by regrouping the similar topics of both paper one and two. Hence, instead of 20 units, the syllabus is reduced to 15 units.

PAPER 1: PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY

PART A: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

  1. Geomorphology: Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development ; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development ; Applied Geomorphology : Geohydrology, economic geology and environment.
  2. Climatology: Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Applied climatology and Urban climate.
  3. Oceanography: Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching; sealevel changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.
  4. Biogeography: Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
  5. Environmental Geography: Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.

PART B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

  1. Perspectives in Human Geography: Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.
  2. Economic Geography: World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: locational patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.
  3. Population and Settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural – urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.
  4. Regional Planning: Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; regional development strategies; environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
  5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography: Systems analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Rostov’s model of stages of growth. Heartland and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.

GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA

  1. Physical Setting: Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.
  2. Resources: Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.
  3. Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and socialforestry; Green revolution and its socioeconomic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; aqua – culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agricultural regionalisation; agro-climatic zones; agro- ecological regions.
  4. Industry: Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policies; Multinationals and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco -tourism.
  5. Transport, Communication and Trade: Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.
  6. Cultural Setting: Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.
  7. Settlements: Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems of urbanization and remedies.
  8. Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought prone, hill, tribal area development; multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.
  9. Political Aspects: Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter state issues; international boundary of India and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
  10. Contemporary Issues: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.

NOTE: Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.

UNIT 1: GEOMORPHOLOGY

  1. P1, Geomorph: Origin and evolution of earth’s crust
  2. P1, Geomorph: Physical condition of earth’s interior
  3. P1, Geomorph: Fundamentals of geomagnetism
  4. P1, Geomorph: Continental drift, P1, Geomorph: Plate tectonics
  5. P1, Geomorph: Geosynclines
  6. P1, Geomorph: Recent views on mountain building
  7. P1, Geomorph: Vulcanicity
  8. P1, Geomorph: Isostasy
  9. P1, Geomorph: Endogenetic and exogenetic forces
  10. P1, Geomorph: Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development
  11. P1, Geomorph: Factors controlling landform development
  12. P1, Geomorph: Slope development
  13. P1, Geomorph: Channel morphology
  14. P1, Geomorph: Denudation chronology
  15. P1, Geomorph: Erosion surfaces
  16. P1, Geomorph: Applied Geomorphology: Geohydrology, Economic geology, Environment
  17. P2, Phy. Sett: Structure; P2, Phy. Sett.: Relief
  18. P2, Phy. Sett.: Physiographic regions
  19. P2, Phy. Sett: Drainage system


UNIT 2: CLIMATOLOGY

  1. P1, Climato: Temperature
  2. P1, Climato: Pressure belts of the world
  3. P1, Climato: Heat budget of the earth
  4. P1, Climato: Atmospheric circulation
  5. P1, Climato:  Planetary winds
  6. P1, Climato: Local winds
  7. P1, Climato: Atmospheric stability and instability
  8. P1, Climato: Monsoons, P2, Phy. Sett.: Mechanism of Indian monsoons
  9. P1, Climato: Jet streams
  10. P1, Climato: Air masses
  11. P1, Climato: Fronto genesis
  12. P1, Climato: Temperate cyclones, P1, Climato: Tropical cyclones, P2, Phy. Sett.: Tropical cyclones
  13. P1, Climato: Weather and Climate
  14. P1, Climato: Hydrological cycle
  15. P1, Climato: Types of precipitation
  16. P1, Climato: Distribution of precipitation
  17. P2, Phy. Sett.: Indian rainfall patterns, P2, Phy. Sett.: Western disturbances
  18. P1, Climato: Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s, Trewartha’s classification of world climates
  19. P2, Phy. Sett.: Climatic regions
  20. P1, Climato: Applied climatology, P1, Climato: Urban climate


UNIT 3: OCEANOGRAPHY

  1. BOTTOM TOPOGRAPHY
  2. P1, Oceano: Bottom topography of the Atlantic Ocean
  3. P1, Oceano: Bottom topography of the Indian Ocean
  4. P1, Oceano: Bottom topography of the Pacific Ocean
  5. P1, Oceano: Temperature of the oceans, P1, Oceano: Salinity of the oceans
  6. P1, Oceano: Heat budget
  7. P1, Oceano: Salt budget
  8. P1, Oceano: Ocean deposits
  9. P1, Oceano: Marine pollution
  10. P1, Oceano: Waves
  11. P1, Oceano: Currents
  12. P1, Oceano: Tides
  13. P1, Oceano: Sea level changes
  14. P1, Oceano: Coral reefs
  15. P1, Oceano: Coral bleaching


UNIT 4: ENVIRONMENTAL GEOGRAPHY

  1. BIOGEOGRAPHY: SOIL
  2. P1, Biogeo: Genesis of soils
  3. P1, Biogeo: Classification soils, P2, Phy. Sett.: Soil types
  4. P1,Biogeo: Distribution of soils, P2, Phy. Sett.: Soil distributions
  5. P1, Biogeo: Soil profile
  6. P1, Biogeo: Soil erosion, P2, Contemp Iss: Soil erosion
  7. P1, Biogeo: Soil degradation
  8. P1, Biogeo: Soil conservation
  9. BIOGEOGRAPHY: PLANT AND ANIMALS
  10. P1, Biogeo: Factors influencing world distribution of animals
  11. P1, Biogeo: Factors influencing world distribution of plants
  12. P1, Biogeo: Major gene pool centres
  13. P1, Envt. Geo.: Biodiversity
  14. ENVIRONMENT
  15. P1, Envt. Geo.: Principle of ecology
  16. P1, Envt. Geo.: Ecosystem, their management and conservation
  17. P1, Biogeo: Problems of deforestation, P2, Contemp Iss: Deforestation
  18. P1, Biogeo: Factors influencing world distribution of plants
  19. P1, Biogeo: Factors influencing world distribution of animals
  20. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS AND DEGRAFATION
  21. P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental hazards and remedial measures
  22. P2, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides
  23. P1, Geomorph: Earthquakes, P2, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: earthquakes
  24. P1, Geomorph: Tsunamis, P2, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: Tsunamis
  25. P2, Physical Setting: Floods, P2, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: floods
  26. P2, Phy. Sett.: Droughts, P2, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: droughts
  27. P2, Contemp Iss: Desertification
  28. P2, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: epidemics
  29. P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental degradation, P2, Contemp Iss: Environmental degradation
  30. P2, Contemp Iss: Issues relating to environmental pollution
  31. P1, Climato: Global climatic change, P1, Climato: Role and response of man in climatic changes
  32. P1, Envt. Geo.: Influence of man on ecology and environment
  33. P1, Envt. Geo.: Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances
  34. ENVIRONMENT AND PLANNING
  35. P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental management, P2, Contemp Iss: Principles of environmental management
  36. P2, Contemp Iss: Principles of environmental impact assessment
  37. P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental conservation
  38. P1, Biogeo: Wild life, P2, Resources: Wild life resources, P2, Resources: Conservation of Wild life resources
  39. P1, Envt. Geo.: Sustainable development, P2, Contemp Iss: Concept of sustainable growth and development
  40. P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental policy
  41. P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental education
  42. P2, Contemp Iss: Environmental awareness
  43. P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental legislation


UNIT 5: PERSPECTIVES IN HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

  1. Perspectives
  2. Paradigms
  3. P1, Perspectives in HG: Areal differentiation
  4. P1, Perspectives in HG: Regional synthesis
  5. P1, Perspectives in HG: Dichotomy
  6. P1, Perspectives in HG: Dualism
  7. P1, Perspectives in HG: Environmentalism
  8. P1, Envt Geo: Human ecological adaptations
  9. QUANTIFICATION IN GEOGRAPHY
  10. Models
  11. P1, MT&L in HG: Systems analysis in Human geography
  12. Gravity Model
  13. Diffusion of innovation
  14. Positivism
  15. P1, Perspectives in HG: Locational analysis
  16. P1, Perspectives in HG: Quantitative revolution
  17. CRITICAL REVOLUTION
  18. P1, Perspectives in HG: Radical approach
  19. P1, Perspectives in HG: Behavioural approach
  20. P1, Perspectives in HG: Human approach
  21. P1, Perspectives in HG: Welfare approach


UNIT 6: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY

  1. P2, Cultural Sett: Historical Perspective of Indian Society
  2. P2, Cultural Sett: Racial diversities
  3. P2, Cultural Sett: Ethnic diversities
  4. P1, Perspectives in HG: Languages
  5. P2, Cultural Sett: Linguistic diversities
  6. P1, Perspectives in HG: Secularisation
  7. P1, Perspectives in HG: Religions
  8. P2, Cultural Sett: Religious minorities
  9. P2, Cultural Sett: Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems
  10. P2, Regional D&P: Tribal area development
  11. P1, Perspectives in HG: Cultural regions of the world; P2, Cultural Sett: Cultural regions
  12. P1, Population and SG: Social well-being
  13. P1, Population and SG: Quality of life
  14. P1, Population and SG: Population as social capital
  15. P2, Cultural Sett: Health indicators
  16. P1, Perspectives in HG: Human development index


UNIT 7: POPULATION GEOGRAPHY

  1. P1, Population and SG: Population theories; P1, MT&L in HG: Malthusian theory, Marxian theory, Demographic transition model
  2. P1, Population and SG: Concepts of over-under-and optimum population
  3. P1, Population and SG: Growth of world population; P2, Cultural Sett: Growth of population
  4. P1, Population and SG: Distribution of world population; P2, Cultural Sett: Distribution of population
  5. P2, Cultural Sett: Density of population
  6. DEMOGRAPHIC ATTRIBUTES
  7. P1, Population and SG: Demographic attributes
  8. P2, Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: sex-ratio
  9. P2, Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: age structure
  10. P2, Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: literacy rate
  11. P2, Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: work-force, dependency ratio
  12. P2, Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: longevity
  13. MIGRATION
  14. P2, Cultural Sett: Migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international)
  15. P1, Population and SG: Causes of migration
  16. P1, Population and SG: Consequences of migration; P2, Cultural Sett: Associated problems of migration
  17. POPULATION PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
  18. P1, Economic Geo: Food and nutrition problems
  19. P1, Economic Geo: Food security, P2, Contemp Iss: Population explosion and Food security
  20. P1, Economic Geo: Famine: causes, effects and remedies
  21. P1, Population and SG: World population problems, P2, Cultural Sett: Population problems
  22. P1, Population and SG: World population policies, P2, Cultural Sett: Population policies


UNIT 8: SETTLEMENT GEOGRAPHY

  1. RURAL SETTLEMENT
  2. P1, Population and SG: Types of rural settlements, P2, Settlements: Type of rural settlements
  3. P1, Population and SG: Patterns of rural settlements, P2, Settlements: Patterns of rural settlements
  4. P2, Settlements: Morphology of rural settlements
  5. P1, Population and SG: Environmental issues in rural settlements
  6. URBAN SETTLEMENT
  7. P2, Settlements: Urban developments
  8. P1, MT&L in HG: Central Place theory of Christaller, P1, MT&L in HG: Central Place theory of Losch
  9. P1, Population and SG: Urban morphology, P2, Settlements: Morphology of Indian cities
  10. P1, Population and SG: Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city
  11. P1, Population and SG: Urban morphology: Rank-size rule
  12. P1, Population and SG: Rural – urban fringe
  13. P1, Population and SG: Satellite towns
  14. P2, Settlements: Conurbations
  15. P2, Settlements: Urban sprawl
  16. P1, Population and SG: Hierarchy of urban settlements
  17. P1, Popul.& SG: Functional classification of towns, P2, Settlements: Functional classification of Indian cities
  18. TOWN PLANNING
  19. P2, Settlements: Town planning, P1, Population & SG: Sustainable development of cities
  20. P1, Population and SG: Problems and remedies of urbanization, P2,  Settlements: Problems of urbanization and remedies
  21. P2, Settlements: Slums and associated problems


UNIT 9: REGIONAL PLANNING

  1. P1, Regional Planning: Concept of a region
  2. P1, Regional Planning: Types of regions
  3. P1, Regional Planning: Methods of regionalisation, P1, Population and SG: Sphere of urban influence, P2, Settlements: Metropolitan regions
  4. P1, Regional Planning: Growth centres and growth poles, P1, MT&L in HG: Perroux and Boudeville
  5. P1, MT&L in HG: Rostov’s model of stages of growth
  6. P1, Regional Planning: Regional imbalances, P2, Contemp Iss: Regional disparities in economic development
  7. P1, Regional Planning: Regional development strategies
  8. P1, Regional Pl: Planning for sustainable development
  9. P1, Regional Pl: Environmental issues in regional planning
  10. P2, Regional D&P: Experience of regional planning in India
  11. P2, Regional D&P: Five Year Plans
  12. P2, Regional D&P: Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning
  13. P2, Regional D&P: Multi-level planning
  14. P2, Regional D&P: Integrated rural development programmes
  15. P2, Regional D&P: Planning for backward areas
  16. P2, Regional D&P: Planning for desert areas
  17. P2, Regional D&P: Planning for drought prone areas
  18. P2, Regional D&P: Planning for hill areas
  19. P2, Regional D&P: Regional planning and development of island territories
  20. P2, Regional D&P: Command area development
  21. P2, Physical Setting: Watersheds, P2, Regional D&P: Watershed management


UNIT 10: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY INTRO AND TRANSPORT GEOGRAPHY

  1. P1, Eco. Geo.: World economic development: measurement
  2. P1, Eco. Geo.: World economic development: problems
  3. P1, Eco. Geo.: The limits to growth
  4. TRANSPORT GEOGRAPHY
  5. P2, Transport, C&T: Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development
  6. P2, Transport, C&T: Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade
  7. P2, Transport, C&T: Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society
  8. WORLD TRADE
  9. P1, Eco. Geo.: Patterns of world trade
  10. P2, Transport, C&T: Trade balance
  11. P2, Transport, C&T: Trade Policy
  12. P2, Contemp Iss: Globalisation and Indian economy

UNIT 11: RESOURCE GEOGRAPHY

  1. P1, Eco. Geo.: World resources and their distribution
  2. ENERGY RESOURCES
  3. P2, Resources: Energy resources
  4. MINERAL RESOURCES
  5. P2, Resources: Mineral resources
  6. WATER RESOURCES
  7. P2, Resources: Surface and ground water resources
  8. LAND RESOURCES
  9. P2, Resources: Land resources, P2, Contemp Iss: Changes in patterns of land use
  10. BIOTIC RESOURCES
  11. P2, Resources: Biotic resources
  12. P2, Phy. Sett.: Natural vegetation
  13. P2, Resources: Forest resources
  14. P1, Biogeo: Problems of deforestation, P2, Contemp Iss: Deforestation
  15. P1, Biogeo: (Forest) conservation measures, P2, Resources: Conservation of Forest resources
  16. MARINE RESOURCES
  17. P2, Resources: Marine resources, P1, Oceano: Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources
  18. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
  19. P1, Eco. Geo.: Energy crisis, P2, Resources: Energy crisis


UNIT 12: INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY

  1. P1, Eco. Geo.: World industries: locational patterns
  2. P1, MT&L in HG: Weber’s model of industrial location
  3. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of cotton industries
  4. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of jute industries
  5. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of textile industries
  6. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of iron and steel industries
  7. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of aluminium industries
  8. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of fertilizer industries
  9. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of paper industries
  10. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of chemical industries
  11. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of pharmaceutical industries
  12. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of Automobile industries
  13. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of cottage industries
  14. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of agro-based industries
  15. P2, Industry: Evolution of industries
  16. P2, Industry: Industrial complexes
  17. P2, Industry: Industrial regionalisation
  18. P2, Industry: New industrial policies
  19. P2, Industry: Multinationals, P2, Industry: Liberalization
  20. P1, Eco. Geo.: World industries: problems
  21. P2, Industry: Tourism including eco–tourism
  22. P2, Industry: Industrial houses
  23. P2, Industry: Public sector undertakings
  24. P2, Industry: Special Economic Zones
  25. P2, Transport, C&T: Export processing zones
  26. P2, Contemp Iss: Problems of industrial unrest


UNIT 13: AGRICULTURE GEOGRAPHY

  1. AGRICULTURAL REGIONS
  2. P2, Agriculture: Agricultural regionalisation
  3. P1, Eco. Geo.: World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions
  4. P2, Agriculture: Significance of dry farming
  5. P2, Agriculture: Agro-climatic zones
  6. P2, Agriculture: Agro- ecological regions
  7. DETERMINANTS OF AGRICULTURE
  8. P1, MT&L in HG: Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location
  9. P1, Eco. Geo.: Agricultural inputs
  10. P2, Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power
  11. P2, Agriculture: Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms
  12. CONCEPTS IN AGRICULTURE
  13. P2, Agriculture: Cropping pattern
  14. P1, Eco. Geo.: Agricultural productivity, P2, Agriculture: Agricultural productivity
  15. P2, Agriculture: Agricultural intensity
  16. P2, Agriculture: Crop combination
  17. P2, Agriculture: Land capability
  18. ALLIED AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES
  19. P2, Agriculture: Livestock resources
  20. P2, Agriculture: White revolution
  21. P2, Agriculture: Aqua culture
  22. P2, Agriculture: Sericulture
  23. P2, Agriculture: Apiculture
  24. P2, Agriculture: Poultry
  25. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
  26. P2, Agriculture: Green revolution and its socioeconomic and ecological implications
  27. P1, Biogeo: Social forestry, P2, Agriculture: Social forestry, P1, Biogeo: Agro-forestry, P2, Agriculture: Agro forestry
  28. P2,  Contemp Iss: Problems of agrarian unrest


UNIT 14: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY

  1. P1, MT&L in HG: Heartland theory, P1, MT&L in HG: Rimland theory
  2. P1, MT&L in HG: Laws of international boundaries and frontiers
  3. P1, Oceano: Law of the sea
  4. P2, Pol. Asp.: International boundary of India and related issues
  5. P2, Phy. Sett.: Space relationship of India with neighboring countries
  6. P2, Pol. Asp.: India’s role in world affairs
  7. P2, Pol. Asp.: Geopolitics of South Asia, P2, Transport, C&T: Indian space programme
  8. P2, Pol. Asp.: Geopolitics of Indian Ocean realm
  9. P2, Pol. Asp.: Cross border terrorism
  10. P2, Pol. Asp.: Geographical basis of Indian federalism
  11. P2, Pol. Asp.: State reorganisation
  12. P2, Pol. Asp.: Emergence of new states
  13. P2, Pol. Asp.: Regional consciousness
  14. P2, Pol. Asp.: Inter-state issues, P2, Contemp Iss: Linkage of rivers



UNIT 15: MAPS