Programme Details

  • Will be available soon.

Fee Structure

  • Geography Optional- Paper 1: Rs. 6,000
  • Geography Optional- Paper 2: Rs. 5,000
  • Geography Optional- Full Syllabus: Rs. 10,000
  • Geography Optional- 1 Unit: Rs. 1000 [Total 20 Units in Syllabus]
  • Geography Optional- Test Series: Rs. 300 per Test.

Geography is the most popular optional. Approximately 1/3rd students write Mains with this optional.

SYLLABUS

Geography is one of the popular optional. There are a lot of books and coaching centres for geography. However, there is a dearth of quality material and quality test series, both offline (apart from Delhi) and online.

Synopsis IAS has worked to simplify the process of Geography Optional.

We recommend a strategy based on the syllabus topics and previous year papers.

The UPSC syllabus itself is the basic beacon light for starting the preparation. However, we have re-organised the syllabus by regrouping the similar topics of both paper one and two. Hence, instead of 20 units, the syllabus is reduced to 15 units.

Our test series and lectures are divided as per the redefined syllabus.

PAPER 1: PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY

PART A: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

  1. Geomorphology: Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development ; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development ; Applied Geomorphology : Geohydrology, economic geology and environment.
  2. Climatology: Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Applied climatology and Urban climate.
  3. Oceanography: Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching; sealevel changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.
  4. Biogeography: Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
  5. Environmental Geography: Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.

PART B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

  1. Perspectives in Human Geography: Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.
  2. Economic Geography: World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: locational patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.
  3. Population and Settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural – urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.
  4. Regional Planning: Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; regional development strategies; environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
  5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography: Systems analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Rostov’s model of stages of growth. Heartland and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.

GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA

  1. Physical Setting: Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.
  2. Resources: Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.
  3. Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and socialforestry; Green revolution and its socioeconomic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; aqua – culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agricultural regionalisation; agro-climatic zones; agro- ecological regions.
  4. Industry: Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policies; Multinationals and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco -tourism.
  5. Transport, Communication and Trade: Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.
  6. Cultural Setting: Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.
  7. Settlements: Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems of urbanization and remedies.
  8. Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought prone, hill, tribal area development; multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.
  9. Political Aspects: Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter state issues; international boundary of India and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
  10. Contemporary Issues: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.

NOTE: Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.

UNIT 1: GEOMORPHOLOGY

  1. P1, Geomorph: Origin and evolution of earth’s crust
  2. P1, Geomorph: Physical condition of earth’s interior
  3. P1, Geomorph: Fundamentals of geomagnetism
  4. P1, Geomorph: Continental drift, P1, Geomorph: Plate tectonics
  5. P1, Geomorph: Geosynclines
  6. P1, Geomorph: Recent views on mountain building
  7. P1, Geomorph: Vulcanicity
  8. P1, Geomorph: Isostasy
  9. P1, Geomorph: Endogenetic and exogenetic forces
  10. P1, Geomorph: Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development
  11. P1, Geomorph: Factors controlling landform development
  12. P1, Geomorph: Slope development
  13. P1, Geomorph: Channel morphology
  14. P1, Geomorph: Denudation chronology
  15. P1, Geomorph: Erosion surfaces
  16. P1, Geomorph: Applied Geomorphology: Geohydrology, Economic geology, Environment
  17. P2, Phy. Sett: Structure; P2, Phy. Sett.: Relief
  18. P2, Phy. Sett.: Physiographic regions
  19. P2, Phy. Sett: Drainage system


UNIT 2: CLIMATOLOGY

  1. P1, Climato: Temperature
  2. P1, Climato: Pressure belts of the world
  3. P1, Climato: Heat budget of the earth
  4. P1, Climato: Atmospheric circulation
  5. P1, Climato:  Planetary winds
  6. P1, Climato: Local winds
  7. P1, Climato: Atmospheric stability and instability
  8. P1, Climato: Monsoons, P2, Phy. Sett.: Mechanism of Indian monsoons
  9. P1, Climato: Jet streams
  10. P1, Climato: Air masses
  11. P1, Climato: Fronto genesis
  12. P1, Climato: Temperate cyclones, P1, Climato: Tropical cyclones, P2, Phy. Sett.: Tropical cyclones
  13. P1, Climato: Weather and Climate
  14. P1, Climato: Hydrological cycle
  15. P1, Climato: Types of precipitation
  16. P1, Climato: Distribution of precipitation
  17. P2, Phy. Sett.: Indian rainfall patterns, P2, Phy. Sett.: Western disturbances
  18. P1, Climato: Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s, Trewartha’s classification of world climates
  19. P2, Phy. Sett.: Climatic regions
  20. P1, Climato: Applied climatology, P1, Climato: Urban climate


UNIT 3: OCEANOGRAPHY

  1. BOTTOM TOPOGRAPHY
  2. P1, Oceano: Bottom topography of the Atlantic Ocean
  3. P1, Oceano: Bottom topography of the Indian Ocean
  4. P1, Oceano: Bottom topography of the Pacific Ocean
  5. P1, Oceano: Temperature of the oceans, P1, Oceano: Salinity of the oceans
  6. P1, Oceano: Heat budget
  7. P1, Oceano: Salt budget
  8. P1, Oceano: Ocean deposits
  9. P1, Oceano: Marine pollution
  10. P1, Oceano: Waves
  11. P1, Oceano: Currents
  12. P1, Oceano: Tides
  13. P1, Oceano: Sea level changes
  14. P1, Oceano: Coral reefs
  15. P1, Oceano: Coral bleaching


UNIT 4: ENVIRONMENTAL GEOGRAPHY

  1. BIOGEOGRAPHY: SOIL
  2. P1, Biogeo: Genesis of soils
  3. P1, Biogeo: Classification soils, P2, Phy. Sett.: Soil types
  4. P1,Biogeo: Distribution of soils, P2, Phy. Sett.: Soil distributions
  5. P1, Biogeo: Soil profile
  6. P1, Biogeo: Soil erosion, P2, Contemp Iss: Soil erosion
  7. P1, Biogeo: Soil degradation
  8. P1, Biogeo: Soil conservation
  9. BIOGEOGRAPHY: PLANT AND ANIMALS
  10. P1, Biogeo: Factors influencing world distribution of animals
  11. P1, Biogeo: Factors influencing world distribution of plants
  12. P1, Biogeo: Major gene pool centres
  13. P1, Envt. Geo.: Biodiversity
  14. ENVIRONMENT
  15. P1, Envt. Geo.: Principle of ecology
  16. P1, Envt. Geo.: Ecosystem, their management and conservation
  17. P1, Biogeo: Problems of deforestation, P2, Contemp Iss: Deforestation
  18. P1, Biogeo: Factors influencing world distribution of plants
  19. P1, Biogeo: Factors influencing world distribution of animals
  20. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS AND DEGRAFATION
  21. P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental hazards and remedial measures
  22. P2, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides
  23. P1, Geomorph: Earthquakes, P2, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: earthquakes
  24. P1, Geomorph: Tsunamis, P2, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: Tsunamis
  25. P2, Physical Setting: Floods, P2, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: floods
  26. P2, Phy. Sett.: Droughts, P2, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: droughts
  27. P2, Contemp Iss: Desertification
  28. P2, Contemp Iss: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: epidemics
  29. P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental degradation, P2, Contemp Iss: Environmental degradation
  30. P2, Contemp Iss: Issues relating to environmental pollution
  31. P1, Climato: Global climatic change, P1, Climato: Role and response of man in climatic changes
  32. P1, Envt. Geo.: Influence of man on ecology and environment
  33. P1, Envt. Geo.: Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances
  34. ENVIRONMENT AND PLANNING
  35. P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental management, P2, Contemp Iss: Principles of environmental management
  36. P2, Contemp Iss: Principles of environmental impact assessment
  37. P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental conservation
  38. P1, Biogeo: Wild life, P2, Resources: Wild life resources, P2, Resources: Conservation of Wild life resources
  39. P1, Envt. Geo.: Sustainable development, P2, Contemp Iss: Concept of sustainable growth and development
  40. P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental policy
  41. P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental education
  42. P2, Contemp Iss: Environmental awareness
  43. P1, Envt. Geo.: Environmental legislation


UNIT 5: PERSPECTIVES IN HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

  1. Perspectives
  2. Paradigms
  3. P1, Perspectives in HG: Areal differentiation
  4. P1, Perspectives in HG: Regional synthesis
  5. P1, Perspectives in HG: Dichotomy
  6. P1, Perspectives in HG: Dualism
  7. P1, Perspectives in HG: Environmentalism
  8. P1, Envt Geo: Human ecological adaptations
  9. QUANTIFICATION IN GEOGRAPHY
  10. Models
  11. P1, MT&L in HG: Systems analysis in Human geography
  12. Gravity Model
  13. Diffusion of innovation
  14. Positivism
  15. P1, Perspectives in HG: Locational analysis
  16. P1, Perspectives in HG: Quantitative revolution
  17. CRITICAL REVOLUTION
  18. P1, Perspectives in HG: Radical approach
  19. P1, Perspectives in HG: Behavioural approach
  20. P1, Perspectives in HG: Human approach
  21. P1, Perspectives in HG: Welfare approach


UNIT 6: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY

  1. P2, Cultural Sett: Historical Perspective of Indian Society
  2. P2, Cultural Sett: Racial diversities
  3. P2, Cultural Sett: Ethnic diversities
  4. P1, Perspectives in HG: Languages
  5. P2, Cultural Sett: Linguistic diversities
  6. P1, Perspectives in HG: Secularisation
  7. P1, Perspectives in HG: Religions
  8. P2, Cultural Sett: Religious minorities
  9. P2, Cultural Sett: Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems
  10. P2, Regional D&P: Tribal area development
  11. P1, Perspectives in HG: Cultural regions of the world; P2, Cultural Sett: Cultural regions
  12. P1, Population and SG: Social well-being
  13. P1, Population and SG: Quality of life
  14. P1, Population and SG: Population as social capital
  15. P2, Cultural Sett: Health indicators
  16. P1, Perspectives in HG: Human development index


UNIT 7: POPULATION GEOGRAPHY

  1. P1, Population and SG: Population theories; P1, MT&L in HG: Malthusian theory, Marxian theory, Demographic transition model
  2. P1, Population and SG: Concepts of over-under-and optimum population
  3. P1, Population and SG: Growth of world population; P2, Cultural Sett: Growth of population
  4. P1, Population and SG: Distribution of world population; P2, Cultural Sett: Distribution of population
  5. P2, Cultural Sett: Density of population
  6. DEMOGRAPHIC ATTRIBUTES
  7. P1, Population and SG: Demographic attributes
  8. P2, Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: sex-ratio
  9. P2, Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: age structure
  10. P2, Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: literacy rate
  11. P2, Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: work-force, dependency ratio
  12. P2, Cultural Sett: Demographic attributes: longevity
  13. MIGRATION
  14. P2, Cultural Sett: Migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international)
  15. P1, Population and SG: Causes of migration
  16. P1, Population and SG: Consequences of migration; P2, Cultural Sett: Associated problems of migration
  17. POPULATION PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
  18. P1, Economic Geo: Food and nutrition problems
  19. P1, Economic Geo: Food security, P2, Contemp Iss: Population explosion and Food security
  20. P1, Economic Geo: Famine: causes, effects and remedies
  21. P1, Population and SG: World population problems, P2, Cultural Sett: Population problems
  22. P1, Population and SG: World population policies, P2, Cultural Sett: Population policies


UNIT 8: SETTLEMENT GEOGRAPHY

  1. RURAL SETTLEMENT
  2. P1, Population and SG: Types of rural settlements, P2, Settlements: Type of rural settlements
  3. P1, Population and SG: Patterns of rural settlements, P2, Settlements: Patterns of rural settlements
  4. P2, Settlements: Morphology of rural settlements
  5. P1, Population and SG: Environmental issues in rural settlements
  6. URBAN SETTLEMENT
  7. P2, Settlements: Urban developments
  8. P1, MT&L in HG: Central Place theory of Christaller, P1, MT&L in HG: Central Place theory of Losch
  9. P1, Population and SG: Urban morphology, P2, Settlements: Morphology of Indian cities
  10. P1, Population and SG: Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city
  11. P1, Population and SG: Urban morphology: Rank-size rule
  12. P1, Population and SG: Rural – urban fringe
  13. P1, Population and SG: Satellite towns
  14. P2, Settlements: Conurbations
  15. P2, Settlements: Urban sprawl
  16. P1, Population and SG: Hierarchy of urban settlements
  17. P1, Popul.& SG: Functional classification of towns, P2, Settlements: Functional classification of Indian cities
  18. TOWN PLANNING
  19. P2, Settlements: Town planning, P1, Population & SG: Sustainable development of cities
  20. P1, Population and SG: Problems and remedies of urbanization, P2,  Settlements: Problems of urbanization and remedies
  21. P2, Settlements: Slums and associated problems


UNIT 9: REGIONAL PLANNING

  1. P1, Regional Planning: Concept of a region
  2. P1, Regional Planning: Types of regions
  3. P1, Regional Planning: Methods of regionalisation, P1, Population and SG: Sphere of urban influence, P2, Settlements: Metropolitan regions
  4. P1, Regional Planning: Growth centres and growth poles, P1, MT&L in HG: Perroux and Boudeville
  5. P1, MT&L in HG: Rostov’s model of stages of growth
  6. P1, Regional Planning: Regional imbalances, P2, Contemp Iss: Regional disparities in economic development
  7. P1, Regional Planning: Regional development strategies
  8. P1, Regional Pl: Planning for sustainable development
  9. P1, Regional Pl: Environmental issues in regional planning
  10. P2, Regional D&P: Experience of regional planning in India
  11. P2, Regional D&P: Five Year Plans
  12. P2, Regional D&P: Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning
  13. P2, Regional D&P: Multi-level planning
  14. P2, Regional D&P: Integrated rural development programmes
  15. P2, Regional D&P: Planning for backward areas
  16. P2, Regional D&P: Planning for desert areas
  17. P2, Regional D&P: Planning for drought prone areas
  18. P2, Regional D&P: Planning for hill areas
  19. P2, Regional D&P: Regional planning and development of island territories
  20. P2, Regional D&P: Command area development
  21. P2, Physical Setting: Watersheds, P2, Regional D&P: Watershed management


UNIT 10: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY INTRO AND TRANSPORT GEOGRAPHY

  1. P1, Eco. Geo.: World economic development: measurement
  2. P1, Eco. Geo.: World economic development: problems
  3. P1, Eco. Geo.: The limits to growth
  4. TRANSPORT GEOGRAPHY
  5. P2, Transport, C&T: Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development
  6. P2, Transport, C&T: Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade
  7. P2, Transport, C&T: Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society
  8. WORLD TRADE
  9. P1, Eco. Geo.: Patterns of world trade
  10. P2, Transport, C&T: Trade balance
  11. P2, Transport, C&T: Trade Policy
  12. P2, Contemp Iss: Globalisation and Indian economy

UNIT 11: RESOURCE GEOGRAPHY

  1. P1, Eco. Geo.: World resources and their distribution
  2. ENERGY RESOURCES
  3. P2, Resources: Energy resources
  4. MINERAL RESOURCES
  5. P2, Resources: Mineral resources
  6. WATER RESOURCES
  7. P2, Resources: Surface and ground water resources
  8. LAND RESOURCES
  9. P2, Resources: Land resources, P2, Contemp Iss: Changes in patterns of land use
  10. BIOTIC RESOURCES
  11. P2, Resources: Biotic resources
  12. P2, Phy. Sett.: Natural vegetation
  13. P2, Resources: Forest resources
  14. P1, Biogeo: Problems of deforestation, P2, Contemp Iss: Deforestation
  15. P1, Biogeo: (Forest) conservation measures, P2, Resources: Conservation of Forest resources
  16. MARINE RESOURCES
  17. P2, Resources: Marine resources, P1, Oceano: Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources
  18. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
  19. P1, Eco. Geo.: Energy crisis, P2, Resources: Energy crisis


UNIT 12: INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY

  1. P1, Eco. Geo.: World industries: locational patterns
  2. P1, MT&L in HG: Weber’s model of industrial location
  3. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of cotton industries
  4. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of jute industries
  5. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of textile industries
  6. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of iron and steel industries
  7. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of aluminium industries
  8. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of fertilizer industries
  9. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of paper industries
  10. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of chemical industries
  11. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of pharmaceutical industries
  12. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of Automobile industries
  13. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of cottage industries
  14. P2, Industry: Loc. Fac. of agro-based industries
  15. P2, Industry: Evolution of industries
  16. P2, Industry: Industrial complexes
  17. P2, Industry: Industrial regionalisation
  18. P2, Industry: New industrial policies
  19. P2, Industry: Multinationals, P2, Industry: Liberalization
  20. P1, Eco. Geo.: World industries: problems
  21. P2, Industry: Tourism including eco–tourism
  22. P2, Industry: Industrial houses
  23. P2, Industry: Public sector undertakings
  24. P2, Industry: Special Economic Zones
  25. P2, Transport, C&T: Export processing zones
  26. P2, Contemp Iss: Problems of industrial unrest


UNIT 13: AGRICULTURE GEOGRAPHY

  1. AGRICULTURAL REGIONS
  2. P2, Agriculture: Agricultural regionalisation
  3. P1, Eco. Geo.: World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions
  4. P2, Agriculture: Significance of dry farming
  5. P2, Agriculture: Agro-climatic zones
  6. P2, Agriculture: Agro- ecological regions
  7. DETERMINANTS OF AGRICULTURE
  8. P1, MT&L in HG: Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location
  9. P1, Eco. Geo.: Agricultural inputs
  10. P2, Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power
  11. P2, Agriculture: Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms
  12. CONCEPTS IN AGRICULTURE
  13. P2, Agriculture: Cropping pattern
  14. P1, Eco. Geo.: Agricultural productivity, P2, Agriculture: Agricultural productivity
  15. P2, Agriculture: Agricultural intensity
  16. P2, Agriculture: Crop combination
  17. P2, Agriculture: Land capability
  18. ALLIED AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES
  19. P2, Agriculture: Livestock resources
  20. P2, Agriculture: White revolution
  21. P2, Agriculture: Aqua culture
  22. P2, Agriculture: Sericulture
  23. P2, Agriculture: Apiculture
  24. P2, Agriculture: Poultry
  25. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
  26. P2, Agriculture: Green revolution and its socioeconomic and ecological implications
  27. P1, Biogeo: Social forestry, P2, Agriculture: Social forestry, P1, Biogeo: Agro-forestry, P2, Agriculture: Agro forestry
  28. P2,  Contemp Iss: Problems of agrarian unrest


UNIT 14: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY

  1. P1, MT&L in HG: Heartland theory, P1, MT&L in HG: Rimland theory
  2. P1, MT&L in HG: Laws of international boundaries and frontiers
  3. P1, Oceano: Law of the sea
  4. P2, Pol. Asp.: International boundary of India and related issues
  5. P2, Phy. Sett.: Space relationship of India with neighboring countries
  6. P2, Pol. Asp.: India’s role in world affairs
  7. P2, Pol. Asp.: Geopolitics of South Asia, P2, Transport, C&T: Indian space programme
  8. P2, Pol. Asp.: Geopolitics of Indian Ocean realm
  9. P2, Pol. Asp.: Cross border terrorism
  10. P2, Pol. Asp.: Geographical basis of Indian federalism
  11. P2, Pol. Asp.: State reorganisation
  12. P2, Pol. Asp.: Emergence of new states
  13. P2, Pol. Asp.: Regional consciousness
  14. P2, Pol. Asp.: Inter-state issues, P2, Contemp Iss: Linkage of rivers



UNIT 15: MAPS