This article covers the following topics for Ministries and Schemes for UPSC IAS:

 

MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE

Please memorize index for all the schemes.

Index

MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE

Structure of Ministry

  1. Departments of Health
  2. Department of Family Welfare
  3. Department of Health Research

Schemes

Ayushman Bharat – Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY)

Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi (RAN)

National Health Mission (NHM)

National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)

National Urban Health Mission (NUHM)

Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram

Menstrual Hygiene Scheme (MHS)

Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK)

Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA)

Janani Suraksha Yojana

Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram

Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyaan (PM-SMA)

SUMAN: Surakshit Matritva Aashwasan

Mother’s Absolute Affection (MAA)

LAQSHYA- Labour Room Quality Improvement Initiative

Umbrella Scheme for Family Welfare and Other Health Interventions

Mission Parivar Vikas

Universal Immunization Programme

Mission Indradhanush (MI)

Intensified Mission Indradhanush 2.0

e-VIN (Electronic Vaccine Intelligence Network)

National Deworming Initiative

National Program for Control of Blindness & Visual Impairment

National Viral Hepatitis Control Program

Intensified Diarrhea Control Fortnight (IDCF)

Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana

Integrated Diseases Surveillance Program (IDSP)

E-RaktKosh initiative

ANMOL

Kilkari

Project Sunrise

National AIDS Control Programme-IV (NACP-IV)

Mission SAMPARK

AMRIT Programme

Nikshay Poshan Yojana (NKY)

Food Safety Mitra scheme

National Health Profile

National Health Resource Repository (NHRR)

National Data Quality Forum (NDQF)

Dakshata Programme

 

 

Structure of Ministry

Function: health policy and programs relating to family planning.

 

1. Departments of Health

Functions: It makes Health Policies.

Bodies and programmes:

  • 13 National Health Programmes
  • Revised National TB Control Programme (tuberculosis)
  • Universal Immunisation Programme
  • National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO)
  • Medical Council of India (MCI), Dental Council of India (DCI)
  • Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)
  • Central Drugs Standard Control Organization

 

 

2. Department of Family Welfare

Functions: Family planning, reproductive health, maternal health etc.

Important bodies:

  • Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi. It was founded in 1911, one of the oldest medical research bodies in the world.
  • Population Research Centres (PRCs) at universities.
  • National Institute of Health and Family Welfare (NIHFW), Delhi
  • International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai. It releases National Family Health
  • Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Lucknow
  • National Institute of Virology (NIV), Pune

 

 

 

3. Department of Health Research

  • To bring modern health technologies through research and innovations
  • R&D related to diagnosis, treatment methods and vaccines
  • To translate them into products and processes and,
  • To introduce these innovations into public health system.

 

 

Schemes

Ayushman Bharat – Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY)

Components

  • NHPS: National Health Protection Scheme (Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana): To provide medical cover up to Rs. 5 lakh / year per household for secondary and tertiary health care; to 10 crore vulnerable families (50 crore beneficiaries).
  • Health and Wellness Centre: These were envisioned under National Health Policy, 2017. (1.5 lakh centres)

Beneficiary

  • It is a health insurance scheme for BPL families and unorganized sector workers.
  • Beneficiary identification: based on SECC-2011.

 

 

Other features

  • National Health Authority (NHA): to manage NHPS.
  • The States will have the option of implementing this scheme through a Trust model or Insurance Company based model.
  • School Health Ambassador Initiative: Two teachers per school.
  • It subsumes the centrally sponsored schemes – Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) and the Senior Citizen Health Insurance Scheme (SCHIS).
  • Cashless and Aadhaar enabled for better targeting.
  • It will be portable across the country.
  • Beneficiary will be allowed to take cashless benefits from any public/private empanelled hospitals across the country.
  • Pradhan Mantri Aarogya Mitra (PMAM): a cadre of certified frontline health service professionals.
    • Primary point of facilitation to avail treatment at hospital.

 

 

Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi (RAN)

  • To provide for financial assistance (a one-time grant) to BPL Patients suffering from major life- threatening diseases.
  • Scheme for financial assistance for specified rare diseases patients has also been included under RAN.
  • Excluded: Government servants and their families; Families covered under Ayushman Bharat scheme
  • RAN is registered under Societies Registration Act 1860.
  • Assistance is not directly provided to the Patient, but is given to the Superintendent of the hospital.
  • Applicable for treatment in Government Hospital only.
  • Funding: revolving fund, direct financial assistance, State Illness Assistance Fund, Health Minister’s Cancer Patient Fund.

 

 

National Health Mission (NHM)

Aim: To achieve universal access to equitable, affordable & quality health care services that are accountable and responsive to people’s needs.

It was launched in 2013 by subsuming the

  • National Rural Health Mission and
  • National Urban Health Mission.

Main components

  • Health System Strengthening in rural and urban areas
  • Reproductive Maternal-Neonatal-Child and Adolescent Health (RMNCH+A)
  • Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases.

Objective

  • Reduce Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) to 1/1000 live births
  • Reduce Infant Mortality rate (IMR) to 25/1000 live births
  • Reduce Total Fertility Rate (TFR) to 2.1
  • Prevention and reduction of anaemia in women aged 15–49 years
  • Prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases, including locally endemic diseases.
  • Reduce out-of-pocket expenditure.
  • Reduce Tuberculosis by half
  • Reduce Leprosy to <1/10000 population.
  • Annual Malaria Incidence to be <1/1000.
  • Reduce microfilaria to less than 1%.
  • Kala-azar: <1 case per 10000 population in all blocks
  • Access to integrated comprehensive primary health care.
  • To reduce child and maternal mortality.
  • Population stabilisation, gender and demographic balance.
  • Revitalize local health traditions & mainstream AYUSH.
  • Universal access to public services for food and nutrition, sanitation and hygiene.
  • Promotion of healthy life styles.

 

National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)

  • All objectives under NHM.
  • Cities and towns with population below 50,000.
  • To establish a community owned, decentralized health system.
  • Focus area: health, water, sanitation, education, nutrition, social and gender equality.
  • Mainstreaming AYUSH: revitalizing local health traditions.

National Urban Health Mission (NUHM)

  • All objectives under NHM.
  • Cities and towns with population above 50,000.
  • Focus on urban poor and slum dwellers.
  • Need based city specific urban health care system.
  • Centrally sponsored scheme.
  • Support is provided by the Asian Development Bank (ADB).
  • Service Delivery Infrastructure: Urban PHC, Urban Community Health Centre (U-CHC) and Referral Hospitals etc.
  • Mahila Arogya Samiti & ASHA Worker: For Community Process.

 

 

Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram

To address health and development needs of the adolescents (10-19 years).

  • Six thematic areas of RKSK: nutrition, sexual reproductive health, substance misuse, non-communicable diseases, mental health, injuries and violence.
  • Saathiya: The peer educators.
  • Saathiya resource kit: to help peer educators, especially in villages. Eg.
    • To discuss sensitive issues and answer teenage queries.
  • Students are screened in schools and then referred to health facilities for early detection of diseases.
  • MoHFW and UN Population Fund (UNFPA) developed a National Adolescent Health Strategy.

 

 

Menstrual Hygiene Scheme (MHS)

  • Part of Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram.
  • Subsidized sanitary napkins primarily in rural areas.
  • Aim: to reach 15 million adolescent girls in 152 districts.

 

 

Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK)

  • To cover all children of 0-6 years in rural areas and urban slums; in addition to older children up to 18 years of age enrolled in classes   1st   to   12th   in Government and Government-aided schools.
  • Child Health Screening and Early Intervention Services to cover 30 selected health conditions.
  • Part of NRHM – reproductive and child health initiatives
  • 4 ‘D’s: Defects at birth, Deficiencies, Diseases, Development delays including disability.
  • Zero cost treatment and medical support.
  • Free of cost follow up including surgeries at tertiary level.
  • Child screening at two levels: community level and facility level.

 

Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA)

  • ASHA is a trained female community health activist.
  • She is selected from the community itself and accountable to it.
  • Interface between the community and the public health system.
  • To facilitate access to health care services
  • To generate awareness about health care entitlements especially amongst the poor and marginalized
  • To promote healthy behaviours and mobilizing for collective action for better health outcomes

 

 

Janani Suraksha Yojana

  • To reduce maternal and infant mortality by promoting institutional delivery.
  • Intended beneficiary: Pregnant woman, New born babies (neonates)
  • Part of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)
  • It is a centrally sponsored scheme
  • Cash assistance to women: irrespective of the age of mother and number of children for giving birth in a government or accredited private health facility.
  • BPL pregnant women, who prefer to deliver at home, are also entitled to a cash assistance.
  • Performance based incentives to ASHA for promoting institutional delivery.

 

Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram

  • Beneficiary: Pregnant women accessing Government health facilities for their delivery.
  • To reduce the out of pocket expenses which prevents institutional delivery
    • Zero expense deliveries: entitlement-based approach.
    • Free transport from home to institution.
  • It has no component for cash assistance within itself.
    • It supplements the cash assistance under Janani Suraksha Yojana.

 

 

Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyaan (PM-SMA)

  • Safe motherhood: To reduce maternal and infant mortality rates through safe pregnancies and safe deliveries
  • Beneficiary: All Pregnant Women who are in the 2nd & 3rd Trimesters of pregnancy.
  • To provide universal antenatal care to all pregnant women on the 9th of every month free of cost.
  • Identification and follow-up of high-risk pregnancies.

 

Note: Trimesters of pregnancy

  • First trimester: weeks 1 to 12.
  • Second trimester: week 13 to week 28.
  • Third trimester: week 28 to birth (from month 7 to month 9).

 

 

SUMAN: Surakshit Matritva Aashwasan

  • zero-expense delivery and C- section facility in case of complications at public health facilities.
  • Zero Preventable Deaths: Both Maternal and Newborn.
  • Beneficiaries: Pregnant women, mothers up to 6 months after delivery, and all sick newborns.
  • Zero tolerance for denial of services for each woman and newborn at public health facility.
  • Assured referral services to reach health facility within one hour.

Mother’s Absolute Affection (MAA)

  • To promote breastfeeding and counselling related to it.
  • To prevent malnutrition at early stages.
  • Strengthening inter personal communication through ASHA.

 

LAQSHYA- Labour Room Quality Improvement Initiative

  • To improve quality of care in labour room and maternity Operation Theatre (OT).
  • To reduce preventable maternal and newborn mortality, morbidity and stillbirths.
  • To conduct quality certification of labour rooms
  • To incentivize facilities achieving the targets outlined.
  • Implemented in Government health facilities.

 

 

 

Umbrella Scheme for Family Welfare and Other Health Interventions

  • Paradigm change: To move from care for sickness to the concept of wellness.
  • Help Family Planning and reach population stabilization.
  • To improve Modern Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (mCPR)
  • Beneficiaries: It covers the population throughout India.
  • It is a Central Sector (100% Centre funded).

Components:

  • Swastha Nagrik Abhiyan (SNA): to create a social movement for health.
  • Population Research Centres (PRC): MoHFW has established a network of PRCs at the national and state levels.
  • Health Surveys and Health Research: To generate health and nutrition data. Eg. by National Family Health Survey (NFHS).
  • Social Marketing of Contraceptives: For branding, attractive packaging, marketing of products related to Family Planning for low-income groups at affordable prices.
  • Free Supply of Contraceptives to States: eg. condoms, Oral Contraceptive Pills, Pregnancy Test Kits etc.

Mission Parivar Vikas

  • To accelerate access to high quality family planning choices.
  • To achieve the replacement level fertility goals of 2.1 by 2025.
  • To generate awareness about condoms and pills.To distribute a kit (Nayi Pahal): containing products of family planning and personal hygiene among newly-wed couples.
  • To increase sterilization services, roll out injectable contraceptive.
  • Reliable service and supplies within a right based framework.
  • Focus areas: seven high TFR states, with Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of 3 and above.
    • Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Assam.

 

 

Universal Immunization Programme

  • To provide free of cost vaccines to all children across the country to protect them against 12 Vaccine Preventable Diseases (VPDs).
  • To rapidly increase immunization coverage.
  • To establish a reliable cold chain system to the health facility level
  • Achieve self-sufficiency in vaccine production.
  • Robust surveillance system for Vaccine Preventable Diseases (VPDs) and Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI);
  • To introduce and expand the use of new and underutilized vaccines in UIP.
  • 100 Percent Funded by the central government.

12 Vaccine preventable diseases:

  • Diphtheria, Tetanus, Polio, Hepatitis B, Pertussis.
  • Measles (measles-rubella (MR) vaccine
  • Rotavirus diarrhoea: Rotavirus vaccine (RVV)
  • Japanese Encephalitis: JE vaccine
  • Pneumococcal Pneumonia: Pneumococcal Conjugate vaccine.
  • Tuberculosis
  • Meningitis & Pneumonia caused by Hemophilus Influenza type B across the country

 

 

Mission Indradhanush (MI)

  • To ensure full immunization with all available vaccines for children up to two years and pregnant women.
  • A child is said to be fully immunized if child receives all due vaccine as per immunization schedule within 1st year age.
  • Focus is given on pockets of low immunization coverage and hard to reach areas.
  • To cover the pregnant women who left uncovered under the routine immunisation programme.
  • Catch-up campaign mode: to cover all the children who have been left out for immunization.
  • All vaccines are available free of cost.
  • Technical support by WHO, UNICEF, Rotary International etc.

 

 

Intensified Mission Indradhanush 2.0

  • Special focus on areas with low immunization: left outs, dropouts, and resistant families and hard to reach areas.
  • It will focus on urban, underserved population and tribal areas.
  • 4 rounds of immunization that will be conducted in the selected districts and urban cities between Dec 2019 – March 2020.
  • Awarded as one of 12 best practices from around the world.

e-VIN (Electronic Vaccine Intelligence Network)

  • To address widespread inequities in vaccine coverage by supporting state governments.
  • It supports the Universal Immunization Programme.
  • It provides online real-time information on vaccine stocks and flows, and storage temperatures across all cold chain points

 

National Deworming Initiative

  • Objective: To reduce the prevalence of Soil Transmitted Helminths (STH) or parasitic intestinal worms. (by Albendazole tablets)
  • Beneficiary: All children between 1-19 years ages.
  • Implemented by three ministries: MHRD, Ministry of Women and Child Development, and Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.
  • Implemented through the schools and Aanganwadi centres.
  • National Centre for Diseases Control is the nodal agency.
  • Behavior change practices. Eg. cleanliness, hygiene, wearing shoes/chappals, washing hands
  • It is a single fixed-day approach observed twice every year.

National Program for Control of Blindness & Visual Impairment

  • To reduce the prevalence of blindness from 1.4% to 0.3%.
  • A Centrally Sponsored Scheme
  • Now made part of Non-Communicable Diseases under National Health Mission.
  • In 2017, the definition of blindness was changed in consonance with the global definition of blindness of WHO.

National Viral Hepatitis Control Program

  • Hepatitis cell within National Health Mission: to establish National program management unit at the Centre.
  • To establish State program management unit.
  • Upgrade and strengthen the existing laboratories in the state.
  • Free drugs and diagnosis for Hepatitis B and C.
  • To Establish new testing centres in the public sector.
  • To establish at least 100 treatment sites in public sector focused on treatment of Hepatitis C over 3 years.

 

 

 

Intensified Diarrhea Control Fortnight (IDCF)

  • To ensure high coverage of ORS and Zinc use rates in children with diarrhea.
  • Beneficiary: All under-five children including their mothers.
  • Three action frameworks: Mobilize, Prioritize investment, Create mass awareness
  • Emphasis on the high priority areas and vulnerable communities.

Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana

  • To correct regional imbalances in affordable healthcare.
  • To augment facilities for quality medical education in the under-served States by establishing AIIMS, and to upgrade government medical colleges.

 

 

 

Integrated Diseases Surveillance Program (IDSP)

  • It is a part of IHIP (Integrated Health Information Platform)
  • To strengthen decentralized laboratory based; IT enabled disease surveillance system
  • The program covers both communicable and non-communicable diseases.
  • To detect and respond to outbreaks in early rising phase through trained Rapid Response Team (RRTs).
  • To monitor disease trends.
  • To set up a Central Disease Surveillance Unit and State Surveillance Units
  • An early warning system to take timely preventive steps.
  • Co-ordination for zoonotic diseases.

 

 

E-RaktKosh initiative

  • It is an integrated Blood Bank Management Information System (MIS)
  • It interconnects all the State Blood Banks into a single network.

 

 

ANMOL

  • ANMOL: ANM Online application.
  • It is a mobile app allowing ANMs to update beneficiaries data.
  • This will be Aadhar enabled.

 

 

Kilkari

  • To give free, weekly, time-appropriate 72 audio messages about pregnancy, child-birth and child care directly to mobile phones.
  • From the second trimester of pregnancy (week 13 to 28) until the child is one year old.

 

 

Project Sunrise

  • AIDS prevention programme for the North-East
  • Steered by National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO)
  • Funded under the Centre for Disease Control

 

 

National AIDS Control Programme-IV (NACP-IV)

  • zero infection, zero stigma and zero death.
  • To Reduce 50% new infections (2007 Baseline of NACP III)
  • To provide comprehensive care and support to all persons living with HIV/AIDS.

 

 

 

Mission SAMPARK

  • “Community Based Testing” for fast-tracking the identification of all HIV positive people.
  • To brought under Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)
  • Target 90-90-90 Treatment for All

 

90-90-90 Treatment for All

  • It is a strategy of UN-AIDS. By 2020-
  • 90% people will know their HIV Status.
  • 90% diagnosed people will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy.
  • 90% people receiving such therapy will have viral suppression.

AMRIT Programme

  • AMRIT: Affordable Medicines and Reliable Implants for Treatment
  • Drugs for cancer and cardiovascular diseases along with cardiac implants at a 60 to 90% discount.
  • Implemented by HLL Lifecare Ltd (HLL).

 

 

Nikshay Poshan Yojana (NKY)

  • Incentives for nutritional support to all TB patients.
  • Under the National Health Mission.
  • The patient must be registered on NIKSHAY portal.
  • Financial incentive of RS.500/- per month is given through DBT in Aadhar- enabled bank account.
    • For the anti-TB treatment duration

Food Safety Mitra scheme

  • To support small and medium scale food businesses:
    • To comply with food safety laws;
    • To facilitate licensing, registration, hygiene ratings and training.
  • The FSMs would undergo training and certification by FSSAI.

 

 

National Health Profile

  • Annual publication to create a comprehensive and up-to-date database of health information of India.
  • Easily accessible to all stakeholders of healthcare sector.
  • It covers: Demographic information, Socio-economic information, Health status, Health finance indicators, health infrastructure, human resources.

National Health Resource Repository (NHRR)

  • It is the first ever registry in India of authentic geospatial data of all public and private healthcare resources.
    • hospitals, diagnostic labs, doctors etc.
  • Prepared by Central Bureau of Health Intelligence. ISRO is the project technology partner.
  • Under the Collection of Statistics Act 2008.

National Data Quality Forum (NDQF)

  • Launched by ICMR + Population Council.
  • To improve quality of ‘health and demographic’ data.
  • Will integrate learnings from scientific and evidence-based initiatives

 

Dakshata Programme

  • To strengthen the competency of providers of the labour room, medical officers, staff nurses, and ANMs.
  • Clinical update cum skills standardization training for the providers of the labour rooms.
  • Implementation of MNH (Maternal and New-born health) Tool kit at the delivery points.