This article covers the following topics for Ministries and Schemes for UPSC IAS:
MHRD UPSC, ministry of human resources and development UPSC
Please memorize index for all the schemes.
Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has been renamed as Ministry of Education. (2020)
It is responsible for expanding access and improving quality of the educational institutions throughout the country
Paying special attention to disadvantaged groups, scholarships, loan subsidy, etc.
- It deals with primary, secondary and higher secondary education, adult education and literacy,
- Principle: Universalization of education
- Sarva Siksha Abhiyan,
- Digital gender Atlas (with UNICEF) (Not in MoWC)
- It deals with a university education, technical education, scholarship, etc.
- Education Policy, Secondary and post – secondary education.
- Deemed university status on the advice of UGC, [UGC: Dr. S. Radhakrishnan Committee]
- International Cooperation: UNESCO India, Book Promotion and Copyrights (earlier)
- One of the largest higher education systems in world, after USA and China.
- World – class (J) opportunities of higher education and research
- UGC, NCERT, ICSSR (Social Science), ICHR (Historical), ICPR (Philosophical).
- AICTE (Technical Education), IIT, IISER, IIM, NIT, IGNOU.
- KVS, NVS [Kendriya, Navodaya Vidyalaya]
- It is a flagship programme for Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) in a time bound manner, as mandated by 86th constitutional amendment.
- Note: 86th Amendment made free and compulsory education to children (6 to 14 years) a fundamental right (Article- 21A).
- SSA is implemented in partnership with State Governments.
- Beneficiaries: Children between 6-14 years age.
A flagship programme, with sub-programmes:
- Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat
- Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan
- Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya: in educationally backward blocks.
- To open new schools.
- To strengthen existing school Eg. additional classrooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant etc.
- To provide quality elementary education including life skills.
- Bridging of gender and social gaps in education.
- Special focus on girl’s education and children with special needs.
- To provide computer education to bridge the digital divide.
- Samagra Shiksha envisages ‘school’ as a continuum from pre-school, primary, secondary to senior secondary levels.
- It is an integrated scheme for school education.
It subsumes three schemes-
- Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
- Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan, and
- Centrally Sponsored Scheme on Teacher Education and training
- provision of quality education and enhancing learning outcomes.
- Bridging Social, regional and Gender Gaps in School Education.
- Promoting Vocationalisation of education.
- To support states in implementation of RTE Act, 2009.
- Strengthening SCERTs or State Institutes of Education and DIET as a nodal agency for teacher training.
A Centrally Sponsored Scheme: a single State Implementation Society (SIS).
Regional balance: preference to Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs), LWEs affected districts, Special Focus Districts (SFDs), Border areas and the 115 Aspirational districts.
- To enhance the enrollment, retention and attendance and
- To improve children nutritional levels
- To provide cooked mid-day meal to every child at schools
- Primary level: 450 calories and 12 g of protein.
- Upper primary level: 700 calories and 20 g of protein.
- Nutritional support to elementary stage children in drought-affected area during summer vacation.
- It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
- At national level, an Empowered Committee, headed by Minister of Human Resource Development
- State level Committee headed by the State Chief Secretary
- District Level Committee: headed by the senior-most Member of Parliament of the district.
- Annual increase in Cooking cost linked to Inflation Index.
- Revision of the transportation rate to PDS rate.
- Food Fortification through Food Corporation of India (FCI).
- Monitoring of attendance
- Menu under MDM – that reflects local taste and local produce.
- Usage of Jails, Temples, Gurudwaras etc. for MDM
- To target foreign students by branding India as an attractive education destination.
- To use education as a tool in diplomacy, and to strengthen the soft power of India.
- To double India’s market share of global education exports to 2%. (currently less than 1%)
- To reduce brain drain: To reduce the export – Import imbalance in global education.
- Fee waivers to meritorious foreign students: To be decided by the Institute.
- The fee waiver expenditure will be borne by the Institute.
- No support from Government.
- It is a joint initiative of MHRD, MEA, Ministry of Home Affairs and Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
- Implementing agency: EdCIL (India) Limited, a Mini Ratna CPSE.
- A single window for admission of foreign students.
- Spillover effects: contribution to economy by international student. Eg. direct spends, indirect spends.
- To bring foreign students to Indian campuses
- Proposed in Budget 2020.
- Under ‘Study in India’ scheme
- 14-day learning programme: meritorious students will be mentored and nurtured by renowned sector experts.
- It will cover two areas i.e. Science and Performing Arts. Later it will be expanded.
- Students broadly from classes 9 to 12, from all government and private schools. student to be called ‘DHRUV TARA’.
- Announced by
- Public-private partnership with EdTech Companies: start-up companies to harness technology for better learning outcomes in higher education.
- Partnership with companies using artificial intelligence to make more personalized learning.
- Learning through the NEAT portal.
- They would be free to charge fees as per their policy.
- MHRD would ensure that it is freely available to a large number of economically backward students.
- AICTE under MHRD is the implementing agency.
- AICTE is the national level regulator for technical education.
- Under the National Defence Fund (NDF).
- It aims to promote technical and post- graduate education.
- Beneficiaries: widows and children of the deceased/ex-service personnel of Armed Forces and Para Military Forces and Railway Protection Force.
- Recent Changes: Now the state police officials who were killed during terror/naxal attacks are also included.
- For Armed forces: by the Department of Ex-Servicemen Welfare, Ministry of Defence.
- For paramilitary forces: Ministry of Home Affairs
- For Railway Protection Force: Ministry of Railways.
- It was established in 1962.
- To take charge of voluntary donations in cash and kind received for promotion of the national defence effort.
- Used for the welfare of the members of the Armed Forces (including Para Military Forces) and their dependents.
- Executive Committee: Prime Minister is the Members: Defence, Finance and Home Ministers.
- It ranks institutions across the country, launched in 2015.
- Parameters: Teaching, Learning and Resources
- Research and Professional Practices
- Graduation Outcomes
- Outreach and Inclusivity
- UGC has approved “Scheme for Trans-Disciplinary Research for India’s Developing Economy” (STRIDE)
- To identify young talent, and to strengthen research culture.
- Applied research relevant to the overall well-being of society.
- To fund high impact national network projects.
- To revive Indian knowledge systems.
National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement
- Objective: To motivate and equip teachers to foster critical thinking in students; and to act as first level counsellors.
- Beneficiaries: All teachers and Heads of Schools at elementary level in Government schools.
- Launched under the Samagra Shiksha Scheme, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
- Modules: Standardized national module, Activity-based modules like quizzes, Social- emotional learning, Post training module
- NCERT developed an app and Learning Management System (LMS) based on MOODLE (Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment)
- It is a self-defence training to the
- To become psychologically, intellectually and physically strong.
- To leverage the potential for science, mathematics and technology learning in non-classroom settings.
- It is a step to promote scientific temper and enquiry promoting the fundamental duty under Article 51(A).
- Mentoring by institutes like IITs, IIMs, IISERs and other central universities and reputed organizations
- To develop a natural sense of passion towards science and math.
- To encourage schools to be incubators of innovation.
- Objectives: Early reading and writing with comprehension (ERWC) and Early mathematics (EM).
- National Reading Initiative: to promote habit of reading among students in elementary schools, thereby extending it to class 8.
- An annual library grant to all Government schools.
- To provide universal access to secondary education.
- Providing a secondary school within a reasonable distance (5-7 km) of habitation.
- To ensure 100% GER, and universal retention by 2020, PTR 30:1.
- To improve quality, removing gender, socio-economic and disability barriers.
- Infra: Additional class rooms, Laboratories, Toilet blocks, Residential Hostels for Teachers in remote areas etc.
- Focus on Science, Math and English
- Focus on vulnerable groups: Preference to areas with concentration of SC/ST/Minority for opening of schools etc.
- Transformative reforms in State Higher Education
- To create an enabling atmosphere in higher educational institutions (HEIs) for research and innovations.
- To improve the GER (Gross Enrolment Ratio) to 30% by 2020.
- To reduce regional imbalances, social and gender gaps.
- Priority to Aspirational Districts, identified by the NITI Aayog.
- It is a centrally sponsored flagship scheme.
- Central funding: norm based and outcome dependent.
- Planning and monitoring at the state level
- Promoting autonomy in State Universities and improving governance.
- A fund for schemes of secondary and higher education.
- It would be maintained as a Reserve Fund in non-interest bearing section of the Public Accounts of India.
- Funding: All proceeds of Secondary and Higher Education Cess.
- 1% cess on central taxes.
- Expenditure on schemes: initially from the gross budgetary support (GBS); from the MUSK only after the GBS is exhausted.
- The proceeds of cess are used for Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and Mid-Day Meal (MDM) Schemes of the Department of School Education & Literacy.
- It would operationalised MUSK initially.
A programme for adult education
- A district, having adult female literacy rate of 50% or below.
- All left wing extremism-affected districts, irrespective of literacy rate.
- Beneficiaries- Non-literate adults, of 15 years and beyond.
- To impart functional literacy and numeracy to non-literate and non-numerate adults
- To enable neo-literate adults to continue learning beyond basic literacy; and to acquire equivalency to formal education system.
- To Impart relevant skill development programmes.
Note: Functional literacy refers to the practical skill set needed to read, write, and do math, that are adequate to manage daily living.
- To actively enhance interaction between people of diverse cultures.
- Every State/UT would be paired with another State/UT for reciprocal interaction between the people.
- Rashtriya Ekta Shivir by KVS (Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan).
- Launched by
- EQUIP is meant to bridge the gap between policy and implementation.
- Double the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in higher education,
- To reduce geographical and regional inequality
- To achieve global quality standards.
- At least 20 Indian institutions among the top global institutions
- To promote research and innovation eco system.
- To improve employability of the students
- To overhaul the quality of technical education in Low-Income and Special Category States (SCS).
- Graduates from premier colleges like IITs, NITs etc to teach in engineering colleges in these regions for 3 years.
- A Central sector Scheme; assisted by World Bank.
- To encourage, create awareness and motivate all people to use a digitally enabled cashless economic system.
- Emphasize upon cashless economy.
- NCC/NSS volunteers to spread awareness.
Scheme for Higher Education Youth in Apprenticeship and Skills
- To improve employability of students
- A functional academia-industry connect on a sustainable basis.
- ‘earn while you learn’ system into higher education.
- To help industry in securing good quality manpower.
- It will be implemented by the Sector Skill Councils (SSCs).
- MHRD: introduction of BA/BSc/ B.Com (Professional) courses in the higher educational institutions.
- MSDE (Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship): Add-on Apprenticeship by National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme.
- Ministry of Labour & Employment: Linking National Career Service (NCS) with Colleges
- To monitor progress of implementation of SSA.
- SSA Repository: Capturing and sharing of best practices from States and UTs.
- Exposure to students in premier institutes. Eg. IITs, NITs, IISERs.
- A Special Scholarship Scheme for northeastern students.
- To promote higher education and increase GER ratio in the North East Region.
- Administered by University Grants Commission (UGC).
All School Monitoring Individual Tracing Analysis
- To track the educational journey of school students, both for private and government schools.
- An online database: information of attendance, learning outcomes, mid-day meal service, infrastructural facilities etc.
- Tracking through Aadhaar numbers.
- To enhance the community involvement by involving volunteers. NRIs, retired teachers, government officials, professionals, etc.
- To improve co- scholastic activities like- reading, creative writing, public speaking, play acting, preparing story books etc.
- Beneficiaries: Government school, Government Aided school etc.
- It facilitates hosting of all the classrooms courses, from 9th class till post-graduation.
- To be accessed by anyone, anywhere at any time, free of cost.
- To bridge the digital divide for students, to bring them into mainstream of knowledge economy.
- SWAYAM Prabha: to provide 32 High Quality Educational Channels through DTH.
- To set up one digital interactive board per classroom in government schools, and in higher education institutions.
- to popularize flipped learning as a pedagogical approach.
- Implementing agency: UGC.
- It is a virtual repository of learning resources which is not just a repository with search/browse facilities but provides a host of services for the learner community.
- To provide full text index from several national and international digital libraries, as well as other relevant sources.
- A project under MHRD.
- To foster greater collaboration and knowledge exchange between local students/ faculty and international
- Lectures available through SWAYAM, the MOOCs platform and the National Digital Library.
Note: Massive open online course (MOOC): It is an online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web.
- It is a 24X7 online store house of academic awards. g. certificates, diplomas, degrees, mark-sheets etc.
- Duly digitised and lodged by academic institutions, boards etc.
- It validates and guarantees the authenticity and safe storage.
- 1500 research projects to be awarded for 2 years to support the social science research in the higher educational institutions.
- Implementing agency: Indian Council of Social Science and Research (ICSSR).
- To boost joint research with global universities
- To get international expertise to solve major national problems.
- It targets PhD and postdoctoral researchers.
- To improve the international ranking of Indian Institutes.
- Eligibility: Indian institutions ranked in top 100 of NIRF
- Foreign institutions: global academic rankings in top 100-200.
- Implementing Agency: IIT Kharagpur.
- An information network for all parameters relating to school education.e. students, teachers, and schools.
- Fully integrated, instantly accessible and seamless network.
- Multi-layered eco-system: school wise, block-wise, district-wise, constituency-wise, state-wise and region-wise.
Scheme for Translational and Advanced Research in Science
- Implementing agency: IISc, Bangalore.
- To promote interdisciplinary and translational research.
- To support socially relevant research.
- Thrust areas: Physics, Chemistry, Biological Sciences, Nanoscience, Data Sciences & Mathematics, and Earth Sciences.
Impacting Research Innovation and Technology
- To solve major engineering and technology challenges
- It is a joint initiative of IITs and IISc. Joint fund by MHRD and Department of Science and Technology.
- Uchhatar Avishkar Yojana scheme is subsumed under it.
- 10 technology domains relevant for the country: health care technology, nano technology, advance resources, sustainable habitat, etc.
- For Advancing Girl’s Education in India
- To identify low performing geographic pockets for girls, particularly from marginalized groups. Eg. scheduled castes, schedule tribes and Muslim minorities, girls with disabilities.
- Developed by MHRD + UNICEF.
- To enhance enrolment of girls in technical education
- Economically weaker Class XI Girls from Government Schools or CBSE affiliated private schools.
- Launched by CBSE under guidance of Ministry of HRD.
- Coaching: It trains girls for entrance examinations.
- Free resources: Study material on pre-loaded tablet.
- To enable higher educational institutions to work with the people of rural India.
- to identify development challenges and to evolve appropriate solutions for accelerating sustainable growth.
- IIT Delhi is the Coordinating Institute.
- Students from these educational institutions will adopt villages.
- It is a “Quality Mandate” scheme by UGC.
- Launched by MHRD.
- To mentor Institutions aspiring to achieve National Accreditation and Assessment Council (NAAC) Accreditation.
- Focus areas: curricular aspects, teaching-learning, research, innovation, institutional values etc.
- It is the premier database of profiles of scientists, researchers, faculty members at leading academic institutions etc.
- Developed by INFLIBNET: Information and Library Network Centre.
- Financial support from NME-ICT: National Mission on Education through ICT.
Digital Infrastructure for Knowledge Sharing
- National Digital Infrastructure for Teachers.
- Teacher education: To aid teachers to learn and train themselves.
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